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Mukesh Ambani: India's richest man helps his brother avoid jail

India's richest man Mukesh Ambani has paid a debt payment owed by his brother, saving him from spending time in prison.

Anil Ambani faced a prison sentence after a deal between his firm Reliance Communications (RCom) and telecoms giant Ericsson collapsed.

That left his firm owing Ericsson 5.5bn rupees ($80m; £60m), which it failed to pay by a court deadline.

The move marks a new twist a long-running feud between the brothers.

RCom failed to comply with an India Supreme Court order to pay Ericsson the money by 15 December last year.

The court found him guilty of contempt, giving him another four weeks to pay or go to prison.

On Monday, RCom said the debt had been paid.

"My sincere and heartfelt thanks to my respected elder brother, Mukesh, and (his wife) Nita, for standing by me during these trying times, and demonstrating the importance of staying true to our strong family values by extending this timely support," Anil Ambani said.

The two brothers have long had an acrimonious relationship, fighting over their father's businesses after he died in 2002 without a will.

The Reliance empire was divided between the two brothers in 2005 after a bitter seven-month feud.

The brothers have fought bruising court battles in the past over natural gas interests.

Mukesh Ambani is worth more than $54bn, according to Bloomberg.

His firm Reliance Industries, whose activities span from oil to telecommunications, is among India's most valuable companies.

By contrast, Anil Ambani has an estimated net worth of around $300m, Bloomberg said.

The Ambani family made headlines last year with the lavish wedding of Mukesh Ambani's daughter, Isha Ambani, which featured a performance from US singer Beyoncé.

ruby Posted on March 19, 2019 10:09

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Italy's La Scala opera house to return Saudi millions

Italy's La Scala opera house is to return more than €3 million (£2.5m; $3.4m) to Saudi Arabia after a funding plan with the kingdom triggered a public backlash.

The deal would have allowed the Saudi culture minister a seat on the board.

Saudi Arabia's human rights record is under close scrutiny after the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul in October.

The partnership plan was criticised by rights groups and politicians.

"We have unanimously decided to return the money," opera house president Giuseppe Sala, who is also the mayor of Milan, told reporters after a board meeting on Monday.

"We'll go back to scratch today. We'll see if there are other opportunities for collaboration."

The €3m already delivered was part of a proposed €15m five-year partnership proposal with the Saudi culture ministry.

But the plan drew widespread criticism, including from members of Italy's governing League party.

League leader and deputy prime minister Matteo Salvini urged the opera house to scrap the deal while the governor of the Lombardy region, who is also a League member, demanded the opera's artistic director, Alexander Pereira, be sacked.

Mr Sala said that Mr Pereira, who negotiated the deal, would keep his job.

There has been no comment so far from Saudi officials.

Saudi Arabia has blamed the killing of Jamal Khashoggi on rogue agents and denied claims that Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman had any knowledge of the operation.

ruby Posted on March 19, 2019 09:02

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Armando, the 'Lewis Hamilton of pigeons' sells for record €1.25m

A champion pigeon has been sold for a record €1.25m ($1.42m; £1.07m).

Auction house Pipa called Armando the "best Belgian long-distance pigeon of all time". He's also been dubbed the "Lewis Hamilton of pigeons".

Before this sale, the record was €376,000 (£321,800). However, Pipa says this was beaten within a day of Armando being put up for bids.

The champ, who turns five this year, is now enjoying his retirement and has already fathered a number of chicks.

"It was unreal, the feeling - it was something out of this world," Nikolaas Gyselbrecht, the CEO of Pipa - short for "Pigeon Paradise" - told the BBC of the moment someone put down a bid of more than €1m.

"In our wildest dreams, we had never hoped for a price like that. We hoped for around €400,000 to €500,000, and we only dreamed of €600,000."

ruby Posted on March 19, 2019 09:00

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US election 2020: Beto O'Rourke breaks fundraising record

 In his first day of campaigning as a presidential candidate, Texas Democrat Beto O'Rourke raised $6.1m (£4.6m), the largest of any 2020 candidate so far.

The rising star's online fundraising haul managed to beat out Senator Bernie Sanders' record of $5.9m last month in the first 24 hours of his campaign.

Like other Democrats, Mr O'Rourke has refused to take any money from special interest lobby groups or corporations.

The 46-year-old is one of 15 Democrats now in a bid for the White House.

According to his campaign, he received donations from every state and territory, totalling $6,136,763. The campaign did not release how many donors contributed.

In a statement, Mr O'Rourke said: "In just 24 hours, Americans across this country came together to prove that it is possible to run a true grassroots campaign for president."

This is not the first time his campaign has broken fundraising records. When he ran against Republican Ted Cruz for his Texas Senate seat, he broke Senate fundraising records by amassing more than $80m.

While Mr O'Rourke ultimately lost his tight race against Mr Cruz, he demonstrated an ability to run a successful campaign and drew comparisons with former President Barack Obama.

Speaking to reporters on Saturday, Mr O'Rourke said he had no "large-dollar fundraisers planned" and was ruling out "taking any PAC [Political Action Committee] money or any lobbyist money ever".

Mr O'Rourke's fundraising figure comes on the heels of his three-day campaign tour road trip across Iowa, the state that will hold the first US presidential caucus.

He will be campaigning in Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania this week.

During his Senate race last year, Beto O'Rourke raised money like a presidential candidate.

That was in a race against a Republican candidate, Ted Cruz, who was intensely disliked by the Democratic base, however.

Now that the Texan is a presidential candidate, could he replicate his success when his competition is a diverse field of like-minded opponents?

If the early results are any indication, the answer is a resounding yes.

The Texan's $6.1m mark in 24 hours put him ahead of even Bernie Sanders, whose small-donor fundraising prowess was thought to be unrivalled.

It remains to be seen whether Mr O'Rourke's pace can be sustained.

What is certain, however, is that this eye-popping number will put a big target on the Texan's back. Even if current polls don't show him as a front-runner, his opponents are going to treat him as such.

Other candidates are already taking veiled swipes at him, and their supporters and surrogates are pointing out his thin resume and sometimes chequered past.

This is just the beginning.

Ms Harris raised $1.5m online in the first 24 hours of her campaign, while Ms Klobuchar reported $1m in the first two days. Mr Hickenlooper and Mr Inslee have also raised over $1m within days, US media reported.

Candidates will officially report their fundraising totals for the first quarter to the Federal Election Commission on 15 April.

ruby Posted on March 18, 2019 16:36

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Kirstjen Nielsen: Walking a tightrope working for Trump


The US homeland security secretary has steadfastly defended a border policy that has provoked condemnation because of its impact on children and families. But why has Kirstjen Nielsen's style also irked her critics?

During a House homeland security hearing on 6 March, Ms Nielsen said that border agents do not put children in cages in detention facilities. She explained: "If you mean a cage like this." She raised her hands above her head and drew an outline of a small, rectangular-shaped dog kennel.

Democrats disagreed. Regardless of the size of the wire-enclosed areas where children were held, the contraptions were still cages, said Bonnie Watson Coleman of New Jersey.

Ms Nielsen acted as an unwavering advocate for the president's "zero tolerance" border policy and for other measures during the hearing. She expressed staunch support for his national emergency and his wall and said she was working to ensure that the nation's borders were fully secure.

In April, Jeff Sessions, the US attorney general at the time, announced that authorities would prosecute anyone who crossed the border illegally. He said this new approach - which ended two months later - was aimed as a deterrent to parents with children but as a result, nearly 3,000 youngsters were separated.

The border policies and her defence of them have been contentious, and some experts believe that her gender plays a role in the controversy.

Ruth Ben-Ghiat, a New York University professor who studies propaganda, says that Ms Nielsen has been a powerful spokeswoman for the policies in part because she is a woman.

"It's very important for normalising this kind of inhumane treatment. She's the soft face of this hard policy."

ruby Posted on March 18, 2019 16:20

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South Africa's President Ramaphosa gets stuck on train

South Africa's President Cyril Ramaphosa may have hoped that joining the morning commute would mark him out as a man of the people ahead of elections in May.

That plan has either backfired or worked, depending on how you view it.

He and other passengers were stuck on a train for four hours on a journey that should have taken 45 minutes.

"It is unacceptable," President Ramaphosa said after the train reached its destination.

He said the national rail operator, Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (Prasa), had to act to improve the situation "otherwise heads will roll".

Train delays are a daily frustration for millions of South Africa's railway users and some have lost jobs because of late arrivals at work, says the BBC's Milton Nkosi in Johannesburg.

Angered commuters have even set trains alight, our reporter adds.

The delay to the train the president caught in Gauteng province was caused by another train that had to stop after its driver was hit by a stone which had been thrown at him, a Prasa spokesman said.

He also blamed "ongoing and sustained attack on our rail infrastructure by… thugs".

President Ramaphosa earlier put on a brave face, seen here smiling inside the train carriage:

ruby Posted on March 18, 2019 15:41

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UK space internet firm OneWeb ready for lift-off

UK based start-up OneWeb has secured $1.25bn (£940m) in new funding enabling it to speed up its plans to launch a global high-speed broadband network.

The firm said the money meant its 2021 launch was now "inevitable".

The funding comes after the company successfully launched its first satellites for the service last month.

The firm is competing with several rivals, including Elon Musk's SpaceX, which is aiming to build a similar network for global internet coverage.

Their aim is to bring the internet to parts of the world where there is currently no broadband, or a patchy service.

The latest funding round means OneWeb has now raised $3.4bn in total from a host of investors including Japanese technology giant Softbank, Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Group, drinks giant Coca-Cola and chip-maker Qualcomm.

The company said the money would enable it - by the end of the year - to start monthly launches of more than 30 satellites.

Eventually these satellites will create a constellation aimed at providing full global internet coverage.

To provide global internet coverage, there will need to be 650 units in orbit, but the ultimate number could rise to around 2,000.

The firm claims the monthly launches will be "the largest satellite launch campaign in history".

American telecoms entrepreneur Greg Wyler told the BBC last month that his aim was to help people in developing countries.

"If you look across emerging markets where there is no internet access or very limited access, generally you see poverty.

"Health-care issues, gender inequality - whatever issue you can come up with, they all fall within that same map. The fundamental underlying thing is that people don't have opportunity; they don't have opportunity to learn, to take themselves out of poverty, to build their communities, and that's why connectivity is so important."


ruby Posted on March 18, 2019 09:16

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Hong Kong subway trains collide amid new signal system trials

Two subway trains have collided during a new signal system test in Hong Kong, halting services and threatening travel disruption for millions of commuters.

The incident occurred between the Central and Admiralty stations before the service was open to the public early on Monday morning.

While the trains had no passengers on board, both drivers were taken to hospital.

Rail officials warned that repairs were likely to take "quite a long time".

Network operator Mass Transit Railway (MTR) said sections of the Tsuen Wan Line had been suspended and urged commuters to avoid the route affected and to use other forms of transport if possible.

ruby Posted on March 18, 2019 08:27

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Christchurch shootings: NZ cabinet backs tighter gun laws

New Zealand PM Jacinda Ardern has said she will announce detailed gun law reforms within days, after an attack on two mosques left 50 people dead.

Ms Ardern said her cabinet had backed gun law changes "in principle".

Australian Brenton Tarrant, 28, a self-described white supremacist, has been charged with murder.

Police say the killer used military-style assault weapons modified to make them more deadly for the attack - all of which is legal under current laws.

No specific details were given by the prime minister at her press conference on Monday, but she said they would made clear soon.

"This ultimately means that within 10 days of this horrific act of terrorism we will have announced reforms which will, I believe, make our community safer," she said.

Ms Ardern was appearing alongside her coalition partner and Deputy PM Winston Peters, who has previously opposed changes.

He said he fully supported the prime minister on the issue, adding: "The reality is that after one PM on Friday, our world changed forever and so will our laws."

Ms Ardern said: "We have made a decision as a cabinet, we are unified."

She also announced that an inquiry would look into the lead-up to the attacks, and what might have been done differently.

At the weekend, Ms Ardern said the suspect had a gun licence, obtained in November 2017, and owned five guns.

Earlier on Monday, gun retailer Gun City said it had sold four weapons to the alleged gunman online, but it did not sell him the high-powered weapon used in the mosque shootings.

CEO David Tipple told a news conference in Christchurch it had only sold him A-category weapons.

Under the country's gun laws, A-category weapons can be semi-automatic but limited to seven shots. Video footage of the attacks appeared to show the gunman with a larger magazine round, which is also available legally.

There are an estimated 1.5 million privately owned firearms in the country.

Since the attack there have been calls for semi-automatic weapons to be banned, a regulation that exists in Australia and Canada.

Previous attempts to tighten gun laws have failed due to a strong gun lobby and a culture of hunting.

ruby Posted on March 18, 2019 08:23

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India election 2019: The mystery of 21 million 'missing' women voters

Indian women got the right to vote the year their country was born. It was, as a historian said, a "staggering achievement for a post-colonial nation". But more than 70 years later, why are 21 million women in India apparently being denied the right to vote?

It is one of India's many social riddles.

Women have been enthusiastic voters in India: voter turnout among women will be higher in this year's general election than that of men. Most women say they are voting independently, without consulting their spouses and families.

To make them secure, there are separate queues for women at polling stations and female policemen guarding them. Polling stations contain at least one female officer.

More than 660 women candidates contested the 2014 elections, up from 24 in the first election in 1951. And political parties now target women as a separate constituency, offering them cheap cooking gas, scholarships for studies and bicycles to go to college.

Yet, a truly astonishing number of women - equal to the population of Sri Lanka - appear to be "missing" from India's voters lists.

In their upcoming book, The Verdict: Decoding India's Elections, poll experts Prannoy Roy and Dorab Sopariwala find that the available data on women points to this.

They looked at the number of women above the age of 18 in the census, extrapolated it, and compared it to the number of women in the latest list of voters. And they found a sizeable "shortfall" - 21 million to be exact - in the number of female voters.

Three states - Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan - accounted for more than half of the missing female voters. Southern states such as Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu fare better.

More than 20 million missing women, analysts say, translates into 38,000 missing women voters on average in every constituency in India. In places like Uttar Pradesh, India's most populous and a key bellwether state, the figure swells to 80,000 missing women in every seat.

Given that more than one in every five seats are won or lost by a margin of fewer than 38,000 votes, the missing women could swing the results in many seats. The absence of a large number of women also means that India's electorate would be higher than the 900 million people who are eligible to vote in the summer elections. If the sex ratio in a constituency is skewed against women and the average voter is male, the preferences of female voters are likely to be ignored.

"Women want to vote, but they are not allowed to vote. This is deeply worrying. It also raises a lot of questions. We know that there are some social reasons behind this problem. But we also know that by controlling turnouts you can control results. Is that one of the reasons? We really need to investigate further to get to the truth," Prannoy Roy told me.

With a sex ratio that is skewed in favour of men, India has had a problem of missing women for a long time.

Last year, a government report found that 63 million women were "missing" from India's population because the preference for sons led to sex-selective abortions and more care was given to boys. Separately, economists Shamika Ravi and Mudit Kapoor estimated that more than 65 million women - some 20% of the female electorate - were missing. This included women who were not registered to vote and women "who were not in the population because of gross neglect" (worsening sex ratio, which reflected the gross neglect). So elections, they said, were "revealing the preferences or the will of a population that is artificially skewed against women".

It's not that election authorities haven't worked hard to get more women to vote.

The Election Commission adopts a rigorous statistical method - gender ratios, elector-population ratios and ages of voters - to make sure that eligible voters are not left out. There is doorstep verification of voters and a substantial number of officials involved in this exercise are women. In villages, child welfare workers and women's self-help groups are roped in. State-run TV and radio programmes motivate women to register. There are even polling stations dedicated exclusively to women.

ruby Posted on March 14, 2019 11:56

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Are the rules which have stopped nuclear war broken

"We are moving in a minefield, and we don't know from where the explosion will come."

A warning from former Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov delivered at this week's influential Carnegie International Nuclear Policy Conference in Washington DC.

Former US senator and long-time arms control activist Sam Nunn echoed the sentiment. "If the US, Russia and China don't work together," he argued, "it is going to be a nightmare for our children and grandchildren."

He urged the present leaders to emulate the approach taken by Presidents Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev towards the end of the Cold War, and to rally around the premise that nuclear war cannot be won, and must therefore never be considered.

Mr Reagan dreamed of missile-proof ballistic missile defences, but also came close to negotiating a comprehensive nuclear disarmament deal with his Russian counterpart Mr Gorbachev

ruby Posted on March 14, 2019 11:36

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US election 2020: Beto O'Rourke to launch presidential bid

The former Texas Congressman Robert "Beto" O'Rourke is to formally announce he is running for president in the 2020 election after months of speculation.

The Democratic rising star told a TV station in his home state he would join the race to take on Republican President Donald Trump next year.

Mr O'Rourke, 46, is the 15th Democrat to declare his bid for the White House.

In last year's mid-term election, he ran a tight race against Republican Ted Cruz for his Senate seat.

His campaign proved ultimately unsuccessful but he did better than any Democrat in Texas for decades, running a media-friendly campaign that energised the Democratic Party nationwide and drew comparisons with former President Barack Obama.

He joins a growing roster of people vying for the Democratic nomination - including senators Bernie Sanders, Elizabeth Warren, Kamala Harris, Amy Klobuchar and Indiana Mayor Pete Buttigieg to name but a few.

There's something strange about an electoral defeat launching a presidential campaign. But 2020 is shaping up to be a strange election cycle.

Beto O'Rourke captured the imagination of Democrats across America with his energetic, yet ultimately unsuccessful, 2018 bid to unseat Republican Senator Ted Cruz in Texas.

He became a social media star, packed rallies across the state and posted fundraising numbers more akin to a presidential contender than a Senate hopeful.

Now he is a presidential contender.

The former congressman from El Paso enters a crowded presidential field, but few of his competitors have matched Mr O'Rourke's star power.

Bernie Sanders has his passionate devotees. Kalama Harris pulled 20,000 to her campaign kickoff in Oakland. But Mr O'Rourke has the potential to match them cheer for cheer.

Sensible journalists swoon. "Beto" attire has been spotted in Brooklyn coffee shops and on the head of basketball star Lebron James. Despite a paper-thin resume, Mr O'Rourke is a rare political phenomenon.

The late Texas writer Molly Ivins once observed that a successful presidential candidate has to have "a little Elvis in him". Mr O'Rourke has Elvis in spades. Enough Elvis to open a Las Vegas casino.

Now Elvis is going on tour.

His first name is actually Robert, but is known by his nickname Beto - a common contraction of Roberto, which he picked up as a child in El Paso.

The former punk rock musician is seen as a rising star in the Democratic Party, who can draw huge crowds and funding.

A fluent Spanish speaker, the Texan politician with Irish roots broke Senate fundraising records by amassing more than $80 million (£62 million) over the course of his 2018 campaign.

He also travelled to all of Texas's 254 counties in his Senate bid, documenting every moment of the journey on social media.

"I'm really proud of what El Paso did and what El Paso represents," Mr O'Rourke said in a text message to local TV station KTSM.

"It's a big part of why I'm running. This city is the best example for this country at its best."

The former congressman is expected to make his formal announcement on Thursday via social media before appearing in Iowa, one of the key states in the early part of an election campaign.

Commentators have speculated for months that Mr O'Rourke would announce a bid for the presidency after his widely-covered Senate run.

In December the Washington Post reported Mr O'Rourke met with Barack Obama while many of Mr Obama's former aides are reportedly backing the Texan in 2020.

Mr O'Rourke, however, has until now kept silent, instead embarking on a road trip across the south-west US which he has documented in a blog.

"Have been stuck lately. In and out of a funk," the former congressman wrote. "Maybe if I get moving, on the road, meet people, learn about what's going on... I'll clear my head".

ruby Posted on March 14, 2019 10:27

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Lori Loughlin: US actress released on bail in college cheating scam

US actress Lori Loughlin, of the sitcom Full House, has been released after posting $1m bail over a college cheating scam.

She appeared in court on Wednesday and was granted permission to travel to British Columbia for a film project.

Ms Loughlin and fellow actress Felicity Huffman are among 50 people charged in an alleged criminal enterprise to get their children into top US colleges.

Yale, Stanford and Georgetown were among the universities targeted.

The colleges have not been accused of any wrongdoing and are investigating the matter internally.

Authorities say Ms Loughlin and her husband, designer Mossimo Giannulli, paid $500,000 in bribes to have their two daughters admitted into the University of Southern California (USC) as fake rowing-team recruits.

The accused parents - many of whom are celebrities or CEOs of major companies - allegedly paid a firm up to $6.5m (£4.9m) to cheat on students' college entrance exams or bribe top coaches to offer fake athletic scholarships for non-athletic students.

Ms Loughlin has been charged with conspiracy to commit mail fraud and honest services mail fraud.

Magistrate Judge Steve Kim ordered her to limit her travel to the US and Canada, where she had been filming for work before she was arrested on Wednesday morning.

Mr Giannulli faced the same charges on Tuesday and was forced to put the family's house up as collateral to pay his $1m bond.

Both their daughters, Olivia Jade and Isabella, are currently studying at USC and were admitted as rowing-team recruits - but neither actually participates in the sport. The sisters have not been charged.

Fellow celebrity Ms Huffman - who allegedly paid $15,000 to participate in an exam cheating scam - was taken into FBI custody on Tuesday as well, and made to surrender her passport in court.

The scheme involved creating fake sporting photographs, said US Attorney for the District of Massachusetts Andrew Lelling

The Academy Award nominee was charged with conspiracy to commit mail fraud and honest services mail fraud. She was released on $250,000 bail.

Her husband, actor William H Macy, accompanied her to court but has not been indicted in the investigation, dubbed Operation Varsity Blues.

He was allegedly recorded discussing the plot, but Ms Huffman was the one who reportedly sent the emails organising the exam scheme for her eldest daughter.

The ringleader, William "Rick" Singer, 58, is co-operating with the authorities.

ruby Posted on March 14, 2019 10:23

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Frank Cali, of New York's Gambino family, is shot dead in New York

The reputed head of New York's Gambino crime family, Frank Cali, has been killed outside his home, the city's police have told US media.

Cali, 53, was shot several times in the Todt Hill district of Staten Island on Wednesday evening and died later in hospital.

The unidentified killer fled the scene in a blue car, witnesses said.

New York media say it is the first targeted killing of a mob boss in the city since 1985.

The Gambino operation is said to be one of the five historic Italian-US mafia families in New York.

Witnesses said Cali's killer shot him at least six times and then ran him over before fleeing the scene. Family members were seen to rush into the street and sit crying next to his body.

Police said the motive was not known.

"There are no arrests and the investigation is ongoing," a statement said.

New York media say it is the first killing of a family boss in the city since the Gambino family's Paul Castellano was shot dead outside a restaurant in 1985.

Francesco "Franky Boy" Cali is said to have taken over the running of the organisation from Domenico Cefalu in 2015.

It is believed he only had one criminal conviction, for conspiring to extort money in 2008 for which he served 16 months in prison.

Perhaps the most notorious head of the Gambino family was John Gotti, who was convicted in 1992 of 13 murders and a litany of other offences. He died in 2002.

Staten Island's affluent Todt Hill neighbourhood is renowned for its crime connections. It was used as the location for fictional crime boss Don Corleone's compound in the 1972 film The Godfather. Paul Castellano also owned a home there.

The Genovese, Gambino, Lucchese, Colombo and Bonanno mafia families are believed to have controlled organised crime in New York for decades.

Last week, Carmine Persico, the 85-year-old former boss of the Colombo organisation, died after serving 33 years of a 139-year prison sentence.

On Wednesday, two heads of the Bonanno family, Joseph Cammarano Jr and John Zancocchio, were acquitted in a Manhattan court of racketeering and conspiracy to commit extortion.

ruby Posted on March 14, 2019 09:56

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Little girl, 3, born with only half a face disowned by her family for disfigured appearance

A three-year-old girl born with only half a face was disowned by most of her family for her disfigured appearance.

Darina has no lips or chin but mother Elena Shpengler says most of her family have disowned the child because they are ashamed of her.


The 46-year-old has given up her job to care for the girl who is now undergoing long, complex and expensive treatment which will take years.

The heartbreaking prejudice against the child has been so severe that she and husband Yury have moved from their own village to avoid family and former friends.

Elena, from the Krasnoyarsk region of Siberia, said: "Darina does not have lips. Her mouth is constantly open and all the time in blood.

"Only my sister supported me, all other relatives just stopped any communication with us.

"My brothers, their children, my husband's mother - nobody wanted to accept Darina."

Darina and her parents, who are devastated that they have been shunned by the community (Image: The Siberian Times)

But the mum refuses to hide Darina away, just as she rejected advice from medics at her maternity hospital to quietly give up the child who would then disappear into Russia's grim orphanage system, The Siberian Times reports.

"We do not hide Darina from people," she said defiantly.

"We take her everywhere with us. Can you imagine, we go into the shop, see our own relatives, and they immediately go out, asking their children not to look at us?"

Their relatives even informed police she and her husband had damaged Darina's mouth themselves.

"I got a call from the police. They demanded explanations.

"Our surgeons were shocked to hear all this. Of course, it will be sorted very soon but we are so nervous.

"And we need all our powers to help Darina.

"We need to raise and support her, she has a lot to overcome."

The mother has given up her job to care for the girl (Image: The Siberian Times)

Surgeon Orest Topolnitsky, who operated on Darina, condemned the heartless attitudes.

"This girl is now in our hospital. It is a very rare case," he said.

"Many charity funds refused to help saying that she would die soon anyway. We took a risk and operated her as a part of the free government insurance.

"But the girl needs more surgeries. We have done the first and the most difficult one.


"It was risky because the child is very small, any bleeding is a threat for her. We know that this family has problems with relatives who have not loved this girl from the very beginning.

"Some people have no hearts, it is so shocking."

Elena admitted that when Darina was born early, at seven months, she was so shocked that she lost consciousness.

"I soon realised that something was wrong," she recalls of the moments after she gave birth.

Her extended family have shunned her (Image: The Siberian Times)


"The doctors were worried and started calling somewhere. The baby was wrapped and I did not see her properly.

"A bit later I begged them to to show me my daughter. The nurse looked at me and asked - 'Are you ready to see it? She is in an incubator.'

"I went close and looked - and saw this wide open mouth. I fell into darkness - and lost consciousness. I was taken to intensive care where the doctors suggested I leave the baby in the hospital. But I strongly refused."

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Boy with two faces is a 'medical miracle' as he survives into his teenage years


Yury was recovering from a car crash in another hospital.

When he finally saw the baby he fell in love with her straight away.

"His face did not change when he saw Darina, he said to me, 'She is ours, our girl.'"

"The truth is this trouble has only brought us together," Elena said.

It has been agony for her feeling her daughter's pain, and she says medics failed to support her.

Elena said: "The doctors did not help me to take care of my child.

Surgeon Orest Topolnitsky (Image: The Siberian Times)


"It is so horrible when you see a crippled and crying baby and you are unable to help."

The child has a serious genetic failure, with eight mutations in her body and being shunned by the community made life even harder for the family.

Elena added: "We did not want such a war with relatives. Only our adult children and their families support us and love Darina.

"They confessed that at first it was hard to look at her but now they got used to it and support us. My husband Yury does not feel ashamed either. He takes Darina everywhere.

"People told us to put a mask on her but he replied: 'If you don't want, don't look at her - but we accept her the way she is."

Darina was not allowed to join a kindergarten because 'the other children would be scared', they were told.

Elena said: "Instead, social services sent two teachers to come to Darina once a week.

"She is such a sociable girl. We have bought lots of toys for her but nothing can replace friends."

The couple have raised funds to pay for medical treatment in Moscow where Elena has been told she will face major surgery every two years.


Darina is recovering after the first successful surgery after doctors sewed her mouth and made it smaller.

They plan to make lips for her and to grow bones and muscles for her chin.

sarah Posted on March 13, 2019 09:14

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'Bizarre' Cluster of Severe Birth Defects Haunts Health Experts

A mysterious cluster of severe birth defects in rural Washington state is confounding health experts, who say they can find no cause, even as reports of new cases continue to climb.

Federal and state officials won’t say how many women in a three-county area near Yakima, Wash., have had babies with anencephaly, a heart-breaking condition in which they’re born missing parts of the brain or skull. And they admit they haven't interviewed any of the women in question, or told the mothers there's a potentially widespread problem.

But as of January 2013, officials with the Washington state health department and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had counted nearly two dozen cases in three years, a rate four times the national average.

Since then, one local genetic counselor, Susie Ball of the Central Washington Genetics Program at Yakima Valley Memorial Hospital, says she has reported “eight or nine” additional cases of anencephaly and spina bifida, another birth defect in which the neural tube, which forms the brain and spine, fails to close properly.

“It does strike me as a lot,” says Ball.

And at least one Yakima mother whose baby is part of the cluster says no one told her there was a problem at all.

“I had no idea,” said Andrea Jackman, 30, whose blue-eyed daughter, Olivia, was born in September with the most severe form of spina bifida. “I honestly was really surprised that nobody had said anything. If my doctor hadn’t wanted us to see the geneticist, I wouldn’t have known.”

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Andrea Jackman comforts her 4-month-old daughter, Olivia, after her MRI scan at Seattle Children's Hospital.James Cheng / for NBC News

There’s no secret, state and CDC officials said, and they noted that small clusters of birth defects often turn out to be nothing more than sad coincidence.

The agencies released a report last summer detailing an investigation of 27 women with pregnancies that resulted in neural tube defects in Yakima, Franklin and Benton counties between 2010 and 2013. That included 23 cases of anencephaly, a rate of 8.4 per 10,000 live births, far higher than the national rate of 2.1 cases per 10,000. There were three cases of spina bifida and one with encephalocele, a sac-like protrusion of the brain through the front or back of the skull.

They publicly posted the results of the investigation in press releases and on state and federal websites. Those were picked up in news stories, including one in the local newspaper, the Yakima Herald-Republic. "State says no cause found for birth defect in Yakima County," the July headline read.

But it's not clear whether affected women saw those stories, and there was no effort to reach out to individual families, said Mandy Stahre, the CDC's Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer based in Washington state, who led the inquiry. “There were very few of us that could spend time doing this investigation,” Stahre said. “I’m not sure the women knew they were part of a cluster.”

Health officials originally were alerted to the problem by a nurse, Sara Barron, 58, who was in charge of infection control and quality assurance at Prosser Memorial Hospital, a 25-bed medical center in the farm town set on the Yakima River. A 30-year nursing veteran, she’d seen perhaps one or two devastating cases of anencephaly in her wide-ranging career.

“And now I was sitting at Prosser, with 30 deliveries a month and there’s two cases in a six-month period,” Barron said. “Then, I was talking to another doctor about it and she has a third one coming. My teeth dropped. It was like, ‘Oh my God.’”

At a regional medical meeting, there were more anecdotal reports. So Barron notified state health officials, who started looking into the problem.

“This is bizarre,” Barron said. “This is a very, very small area.”

"This is bizarre. This is a very, very small area."

Investigators pored over medical records of the 27 area women with affected pregnancies and 108 matched controls who received care at the same 13 prenatal clinics, Stahre said. They examined where the women worked, what diseases they had, whether they smoked or drank alcohol, what kind of medications they took and other factors. They looked at where they lived and whether they got their water from a public source or a private well. They looked at race and whether the problem was more pronounced in the area's migrant farm workers or in other residents.

In the end, there was nothing — “no common exposures, conditions or causes,” state officials said — to explain the spike.

“No statistically significant differences were identified between cases and controls, and a clear cause of the elevated prevalence of anencephaly was not determined,” the CDC wrote.

The results were disappointing, but not entirely unexpected, said Jim Kucik, a health scientist with the CDC’s Birth Defects Surveillance Team who reviewed the results. There’s not usually one single factor that causes such birth defects and it can take an examination of a much larger population to find when something’s wrong.

“This cluster is fairly small in size. It makes it challenging to find that smoking gun,” he said.

A group of birth defects can appear to be related, when it’s actually just coincidence, Kucik added. “I think that there is a lot of frustration when dealing with these type of cluster investigations because they end up without a lot of answers,” he added.

Adding to the problem is that investigations take time and personnel. Stahre and her crew relied only on medical records for their study because there weren’t resources for a full “boots-on-the-ground” effort, Kucik explained.

“We certainly don’t shrug off any indication of high rates of birth defects,” he said.

But that doesn’t help Andrea Jackman, who was an assistant manager at a Yakima Blockbuster Video store when she discovered she was pregnant — and then that the baby had spina bifida.

“The doctor who did the ultrasound said she’d be in a wheelchair the rest of her life. He pretty much told us she’d be a vegetable,” said Jackman, who now lives with Olivia at the home of her aunt and uncle in Ellensburg, Wash.

The news was devastating, and Jackman initially considered ending the pregnancy.

“Then I decided that it wasn’t my decision to make,” she said. “If she wasn’t going to live, it wasn’t going to be my decision.”

Four-month-old Olivia Jackman of Ellensberg, Wash., waits for her MRI exam at Seattle Children's Hospital in Seattle, WA. Olivia has spina bifida.James Cheng / for NBC News

That choice was a good one, she said, cradling a smiling Olivia as they waited for a medical appointment at Seattle Children’s Hospital. The tiny girl has survived surgery to close the gap on her back and endured multiple MRI procedures to measure the fluid inside her brain. So far, she hasn’t needed a shunt to drain fluid, and she’s meeting all typical developmental milestones.

“It was scary at first, but every time they see her, she gets better and better,” Jackman said.

Olivia's defect isn't as severe as some, but she's still considered part of the cluster of neural tube defects in the region. Jackman said that if she’d known that other area women had babies with similar birth defects, she would at least have been aware that the issue existed.

That concern is shared by experts in neural tube defects, who say health officials should look harder — and spread the word about what what they find.

“Any time you see a geographic cluster of a pretty severe birth defect, it does make you wonder if there is a common exposure contributing,” said Allison Ashley-Koch, a professor at the Duke University Medical Center for Human Genetics, whose focus is anencephaly. “If there were resources, it really would be wonderful to go back to the families to conduct more intensive interviews regarding common environmental exposures."

That's been true in high-profile clusters, including one in Texas in April 1991, in which three babies with anencephaly were born in a Brownsville hospital within 36 hours. It sparked years of surveillance and research that found that the problem could be traced in part to the lack of folic acid in the diets of the mostly Hispanic women who lived on the Texas-Mexico border. Obesity and diabetes appeared to be factors, as did exposure to fumonisins, or grain molds.

Research has shown that there are potential links between anencephaly and exposure to molds and to pesticides, Ashley-Koch said. Central Washington is a prime agricultural area that produces crops from apples and cherries to potatoes and wheat, which may require pesticides that contain nitrates.

“They may have eaten the same type of produce from a particular grower or farmer, which essentially put all those folks at risk,” she said.

A Texas A&M University Health Science Center study published last year found that mothers of babies with spina bifida were twice as likely to ingest at least 5 milligrams of nitrate daily from drinking water than control mothers of babies without major birth defects.

The study, led by Jean Brender, associate dean of research at the School of Rural Public Health, found that nitrate levels in drinking water varied widely according to the source, with average levels of 0.33 miligrams per liter in bottled water, 5.0 milligrams per liter in public water supplies and 17.5 milligrams per liter in private wells.

“I have a daughter in her childbearing years,” Brender said. “If she were on a private well, I would tell her to have her well-water tested or drink bottled water.”

Ashley-Koch, the Duke professor, acknowledged that CDC and state officials faced a tough task. It's difficult tracing back through previous pregnancies and trying to find a common cause for birth defects, particularly when not all of defects are the same. Still, she suggested that the investigation may have been a “cursory approach.”

“Without actually conducting interviews, it’s pretty difficult to discern what potential exposures may or may not have occurred,” she said.

Sara Barron, the nurse who discovered the problem, thinks that health officials could — and should — do more.

“I definitely believe something is going on,” she said. “There was something. Maybe it just hit once and blew through, God willing. If there are still cases going on, we need to know.”

Dr. Joffre Olaya, a neurosurgeon at Seattle Children's Hospital, has been monitoring the care of Olivia Jackman. Her mother, Andrea Jackman, says the baby is doing better than anyone expected.James Cheng / for NBC News

CDC and state officials refused to tell NBC News how many new cases they’d received in 2013, saying they plan a full report later this spring. Stahre had previously said they’d received “a few more cases” after the original investigation.

Susie Ball, the genetic counselor who has reported additional cases, said she's "not convinced — yet" that there's a problem in the area and that it may take more time to tell. She wouldn't want to scare people, she said. Still, she said the situation should be more widely publicized to let local women of child-bearing age know the risk — and to help them take action to prevent birth defects.

“Make sure that everyone who could become pregnant knows they should be taking folic acid,” Ball said, referring to the B vitamin that can help prevent spina bifida. “Look at this unexplained spike here in the valley. Take your folic acid.”

It’s the lack of information that still haunts Andrea Jackman, who said she lived near a pesticide-laden apple orchard and drank well water in the couple years before her surprise pregnancy.

“There’s got to be something. I mean, something causes it,” she said. “Every mother wants their child to be perfect. If you could find a way to stop this from happening, why wouldn’t you want to do that? Why would you not want to tell people?”

sarah Posted on March 13, 2019 09:07

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Ahead of Decoration Day, Liberia’s Historic Cemetery Still Dilapidated

Monrovia – Every second Wednesday in March is set aside as Decoration Day, and scenes at every cemetery are expected to be full of reflections, as family members pay respect to their dead ones.

A few years ago, the second Wednesday of March brought scenes of wailing, singing and dancing for people selling various merchandises at the Palm Groves.

Center Street, which divides the cemetery into two halves, with each on Gurley and Lynch Streets, has always hosted the largest number of family members paying homage to the dead.

Individuals who went to the cemetery alone could easily hire people to paint their relatives’ graves and at some point, hired people to cry for their dead relatives.

But condition at the Palm Groves Cemetery, which is in the heart of Monrovia, will make families struggle to decorate the graves of the late relatives. This will be due to the deplorable condition of the graves.

Despite spending hundreds of thousands of dollars to fenced and the Palm Groves cemetery, Liberia’s oldest and historic gravesite, it still remains a deathtrap. This cemetery Palm Groves dating as far back as 1820.

currently, all the graves have been opened by criminals and drug addicts.

For more than a decade, the place is home to addicts and also serves as a hideout for criminals. These vagabonds have virtually opened every grave.

Their fearful presence often serves as a hindrance to relatives of the dead.

Ahead of this year’s Decoration Day, workers of the city planning department at the Monrovia City Hall who were seen cleaning up the cemetery on Monday told a FrontPage Africa reporter that the place has lost its significance as a home of the dead.

Robert Hinneh, who heads the team of workers, said although the cemetery is a “deathtrap”, they had to risk their lives to give the place a facelift.

“You can see, if you are not careful you will drop in the hole. All the graves are damaged. With the place looking like this; how will people see their relatives graves tomorrow? So, it will be preferable that the government demolish everything and put in the stone but for now, I don’t think people who will come tomorrow will find their relatives grave,” he said.

Jacob Nelson added: “I think the government needs to demolish this place. Although it is a historical ground, you cannot find any of the graves close, every grave here are open wide.”

Nelson added: “You cannot find one casket, on bone or skeleton. So, no need for this place to be called a cemetery, it is not a cemetery, it is just an empty field.

“If you come and fix your relatives graves before you turn your back the Zogos them will burst the grave. What they are looking for nobody know. So, the government just got to relocate the place.”

Many argue that moves by the city government to keep the cemetery sacred have proven futile.

Former President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf’s regime had promised to relocate the entire cemetery, but that decision was put to halt by the action of then-Senator of Bong County now Vice President of Liberia, Jewel Howard-Taylor.

In 2016, the most famous and historic cemetery came close to being demolished by the Special Presidential Task Force headed by General Services Agency Director General Mary Broh.

Madam Taylor wrote the Plenary of the Senate requesting the body to put halt to the ongoing demolition of the Palm Groves cemetery.

In her communication, she stated that the cemetery was established by law for the permanent hosting and the final resting place for people she describes as “distinguished citizens, respected patriot, and ordinary citizens.” “This trend of thought to remove our loved ones from their resting place should not be accepted, but instead designated burial places should remain as such, which shows our collective national respect for the dead,” she stated back in 2016.

sarah Posted on March 13, 2019 08:57

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UK economy stalls despite strong January

The UK economy grew by 0.2% in the three months to January, matching the growth of the previous three months.

The report from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) showed a pick-up in activity in January when the economy expanded by 0.5%.

The ONS said strength in IT, health services and wholesale trading offset falls in the manufacturing of metals and cars, and construction repair work.

The increase in wholesale could indicate stockpiling ahead of Brexit.

The total output of goods and services in the UK, or gross domestic product (GDP), grew by 0.2% in the three months to the end of January.

The services sector, which accounts for about 80% of the private sector economy, grew by 0.5% on a rolling three-month basis, mainly driven by wholesale and retail trade.

ruby Posted on March 12, 2019 18:05

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Boeing: UK joins wave of countries grounding the 737 Max

The UK's Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) has banned the Boeing 737 MAX from operating in or over UK airspace "as a precautionary measure".

It comes after an Ethiopian Airlines plane crashed on Sunday, killing 157 people on board. It was the second fatal accident involving the 737 Max 8 model in less than five months.

Countries including China, France and Germany have also grounded the jets.

However, US officials say the aircraft are still safe to fly.

In a move that was welcomed by British pilots, the CAA said the directive would remain in place until further notice.

In a statement, it said it took the decision because it did not currently have "sufficient information" from the flight data recorder about the fatal crash.

Tui Airways and Norwegian both operate the Boeing Max 8 in the UK as part of their fleets.

One Turkish Airlines flight to Birmingham turned around and returned to Istanbul. And Norwegian Air plane from Stockholm to Tel Aviv turned back over Romania

A Tui statement confirmed their 737 Max 8 aircraft were grounded.

"Any customers due to fly home today on a 737 MAX 8 from their holiday will be flown back on another aircraft," it read.

"Customers due to travel in the coming days will also travel on holiday as planned on other aircraft."

Norwegian said it had also suspended flights of the aircraft and apologised for the inconvenience to passengers.

ruby Posted on March 12, 2019 18:00

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Marielle Franco murder: Two Rio ex-police officers held

Two men have been arrested over the murder of Marielle Franco, an outspoken black councillor in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro.

The arrests come almost a year after Ms Franco and her driver were shot dead, an incident which caused mass protests.

Ms Franco had been highly critical of the deployment of federal security forces to Rio's poor neighbourhoods.

Police said both suspects were former members of the military police force.

Ms Franco was returning from an event encouraging black women's empowerment in central Rio on 14 March 2018 when a car drew alongside hers and nine shots rang out.

She was shot four times in the head, and three bullets hit her driver, Anderson Gomes. Ms Franco's press officer, who was sitting in the back seat of the car, was injured.

One of the suspects arrested on Tuesday is accused of being the gunman, the other of being the driver.

The killing shocked Brazilians, who took to the streets of Rio de Janeiro and other cities en masse in protest.

With the anniversary of her murder approaching, there was also criticism of the fact that no-one had been brought to justice for her murder.

Only last week, the Mangueira samba school paid tribute to Ms Franco during their parade at Rio's Carnival, a sign of the councillor's enduring influence.

Ms Franco, who grew up in a poor neighbourhood of Rio, had been a critical voice on the commission overseeing the deployment of federal security forces into the city's favelas.

The day before she was shot dead, she posted a tweet critical of the killing in the Manguinhos favela of a 23-year-old man, which his family blamed on the military police.

"Another killing of a young man which could end up on the PM [military police] tally. Matheus Melo was leaving church. How many more will have to die before this war ends?" she asked.

End of Twitter post by @mariellefranco

Investigators say her killing was meticulously planned and carried out with unusual precision, which led them to believe her killers were highly trained.

ruby Posted on March 12, 2019 12:32

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Colombia plane crash 'kills 12' near Villavicencio

A plane has crashed in central Colombia killing all 12 people on board, authorities say.

The pilot of the twin-engine propeller plane reported technical problems then lost contact and crashed south-east of the town of Villavicencio.

Aviation authorities said investigators were still trying to identify the dead.

The Douglas DC-3 aircraft, first built in the 1930s, can seat 30. The Laser Aereo plane was en route to Villavicencio from Taraira.

Aeronautica Civil has so far given no details on what caused the crash. Wreckage was discovered about an hour after air traffic control lost contact.

Villavicencio is about 120km (75 miles) south-east of the capital Bogotá and Taraira is on Colombia's border with Brazil.

ruby Posted on March 12, 2019 12:02

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Migrant caravan: I pray to my dead daughter, says mother from Honduras

 Despite the town's name, there is little sign of improvement here. Most of its inhabitants live in "colonias", poor neighbourhoods criss-crossed by dirt roads, large parts of which are controlled by criminal gangs.

Those who have jobs tend to work in nearby "maquiladoras", foreign-owned factories where local workers spend long shifts sewing clothes for wages that do not even cover their basic needs.

Edita's daughter, Rosa, was working in one such maquiladora in 1995. She was 25 and trying to save enough money to build a small house for herself. But after she was robbed three times of her wages on her way home from work, she decided to leave.

"We're leaving because here we're not getting ahead," Rosa told her mother before packing up with her partner and her younger brother hoping to reach the United States.

Edita received a letter from the three after they had crossed into Mexico. But there, things went awry. The group was separated after a run-in with Mexican migration officials. Rosa's partner and her 16-year-old brother managed to continue on their way and made it into the US, settling in Los Angeles.

Rosa was left behind on her own in the southern Mexican town of Tapachula, and after sending one more letter, all communication from her stopped - for a full five years.

During this time, Edita joined the Committee of Families of Disappeared Migrants of El Progreso (Cofamipro). Desperate to find their missing children, the members of Cofamipro were planning to launch a caravan of mothers that would retrace the routes most migrants take north, handing out flyers with photographs of their loved ones on the way.

While organising the first caravan in 2000, Edita received a letter from her daughter. Without saying why she had not been in touch, Rosa wrote that she had settled in Tonalá, in central Mexico, and that she was doing well.

Rosa stayed in Mexico for the next four years with little contact with family. She visited once and sent a handful more letters. From what her mother managed to piece together, her life was much more turbulent than she had at first let on.

ruby Posted on March 12, 2019 11:50

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Trump 2020 budget request includes $1bn childcare fund

US President Donald Trump has filed a record budget request that includes a $1bn (£765m) childcare fund, championed by his daughter and adviser, Ivanka.

Mr Trump's $4.75tn spending plan is unlikely to pass the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives.

The policy wish list includes a significant boost to Pentagon spending, and steep cuts to safety net programmes.

The Republican president also seeks $8.6bn for a US-Mexico border wall.

The $1bn childcare plan is a one-off allocation that would seek to improve access to care for underserved populations.

Ivanka Trump, who has made women's economic issues her main focus, also lobbied for the childcare tax credit that found its way into the 2017 Republican tax reform bill.

Annual full-time childcare in the US can cost up to $22,600 on average, according to the Economic Policy Institute.

Affordable childcare is set to become a campaign issue next year as Democrats seek to thwart President Trump's bid for re-election.

Democratic presidential contender Elizabeth Warren has already touted her plan for affordable childcare, which would be paid for with a new tax on multimillionaires.

In the UK, low-income families can be covered for up to 85% of childcare costs.

Parts of Germany and Finland offer free all-day care for every child up to the age of six.

In Denmark, childcare costs are capped at a certain percentage of a family's income.

ruby Posted on March 12, 2019 11:07

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Boeing 737: Singapore bars entry and exit of 737 Max planes

Singapore's Civil Aviation Authority has temporarily suspended the Boeing 737 Max fleet of aircraft from flying into and out of the country.

The decision comes after an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing Max 8 crashed on Sunday, killing 157 people on board.

It was the second fatal accident involving that model in less than five months.

Singapore's Changi Airport is the world's sixth busiest and a major hub connecting Asia to Europe and the US.

But only a handful of airlines operate Max aircraft in and out of the country.

Several airlines and regulators around the world have already grounded the Max 8 model following the crash.

Singapore is believed to be the first country to ban all variants of the Max fleet of aircraft. The suspension went into effect from 14:00 local time (06:00 GMT).

Singapore's aviation authority said the affected airlines include SilkAir, which operates six Boeing 737 Max 8 aircraft, as well as China Southern Airlines, Garuda Indonesia, Shandong Airlines and Thai Lion Air.

It said it is working with airlines and Changi Airport to minimise the impact on passengers. Experts told the BBC that disruption was likely, however.

Aviation consultant Ian Thomas said: "This is sure to lead to significant flight cancellations and disruption to schedules as the airlines involved switch to other aircraft types (assuming they are available)."

The BBC's Karishma Vaswani, who is at Changi Airport, reports orderly scenes. Some flights have been cancelled but it is not known if the suspension is to blame.

In the US, the country's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) told airlines on Monday it believes Boeing's 737 Max 8 model to be airworthy, despite the two fatal crashes.

The Boeing 737 Max fleet of aircraft are the latest in the company's successful 737 line. The group includes the Max 7, 8, 9 and 10 models.