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Air-France KLM: Dutch surprise France by taking airline stake

France has reacted frostily to the Dutch government's sudden purchase of a stake in Air France-KLM in attempt to counter French influence.

Shares in the airline company fell 11% after the Netherlands government said late on Tuesday it was acting to protect "Dutch interests".

The Dutch bought a 14% stake, aiming to match France's 14.3% share.

French Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire insisted the company should be "managed without national public interference".

The Dutch move began late on Tuesday, with an initial acquisition of 12.7% of Air France-KLM shares.

According to French reports, the government in Paris was informed of the Dutch move only an hour before a press conference on Tuesday night, and after the shares had been bought.

A ministry source told AFP news agency the Dutch move was both "surprising" and "unfriendly", more in the manner of market traders than a state shareholder.

The Dutch government then upped its stake on Wednesday to 14%.

French President Emmanuel Macron said the Dutch government should "clarify its intentions".

"Buying this stake ensures we have a seat at the table," Dutch Finance Minister Wopke Hoekstra said of the initial move, which cost about €680m (£583m; $774m). By the end of Wednesday it had spent €774m.

The justification, he said, was to protect Dutch economic interests and jobs - particularly regarding Amsterdam's Schiphol airport. Schiphol is Europe's third busiest airport after London Heathrow and Paris Charles de Gaulle.

KLM is more profitable than its French counterpart and retains much public support for its reputation as the national carrier. The monarch of the Netherlands, King Willem-Alexander, even serves as a co-pilot on the company's planes on a regular basis to maintain his pilot's licence.

King Willem-Alexander flies as a KLM co-pilot - in secret- twice a month

There was widespread political support in the Netherlands for the secret share-purchase. Centre-right CDA leader Sybrand Buma said it was of "great significance for a solid future for KLM".

Mr Hoekstra is expected to meet his French counterpart later in the week, which French government spokesman Benjamin Griveaux predicted would be a "frank but friendly, but especially frank" discussion.

Air France-KLM was formed out of a merger of the two national flag carriers in 2004 - though the airlines themselves have continued to operate under their own separate banners.

Until now, the Netherlands held only a 6% stake in KLM - the smaller subsidiary - while France owns 14.3% of the parent company.

The surprise move from the Dutch came after a series of disagreements in which the Dutch felt they did not have enough influence in the holding company, which was deciding strategy.

Disagreements between the holding company and KLM management - mainly about the autonomy of the Dutch airline - have been made public in the past year.

Strikes in France in 2018 caused company-wide losses, much to KLM's frustration. A Canadian CEO, Ben Smith, was appointed at the holding company and seen as trying to assert greater authority over the Dutch subsidiary.

In recent weeks, reports emerged that the position of KLM's CEO Pieter Elbers could be under threat because of his vocal support for keeping the two operations separate.

Last week, the group announced a "goal of simplifying and improving the governance", part of which involves increasing collaboration.

French financial newspaper La Tribune characterised the sudden move by the Netherlands as a "thunderbolt" while Le Monde saw it as a "stock market blitzkrieg".

The Air France-KLM board of directors was expected to meet on Wednesday to discuss the fallout.

Delta Air Lines and China Eastern Airlines each hold a 8.8% stake in the company.

  • Nigeria's President Muhammadu Buhari has been re-elected for a second four-year term.

    His main rival, runner-up Atiku Abubakar, has called the election a "sham" and vowed to challenge the result in court.

    Here are five things we've learnt from an election marred by controversy.

    With 73 million able to vote, this could have been Africa's biggest-ever election - but only a third of the electorate showed up.

    So what was billed as a record-breaking election did break the records but for an altogether different reason. The 2019 general election recorded the lowest turnout in Nigeria's 20-year history as a democracy.

    Nationwide turnout has been on a steady decline since 2003. The general decline - especially in the south - could indicate a decreasing faith in the political establishment and what it can deliver for the people. Voter apathy appears to have set in.

    The runner-up and main opposition candidate, Atiku Abubakar, says there was foul play in the tallying of votes.

    He says it is curious that the total number of votes cast in one of his strongholds, Akwa-Ibom, was 50% lower in this election than it was in 2015.

    Mr Buhari normally has significant support in the north of the country, where he is seen as a principled man of the people. His numbers have been consistent there for the past five presidential elections.

    Turnout was significantly lower in Nigeria's southern regions, where Mr Abubakar had hoped his numbers would increase.

    He did win in the south, but not by a big enough margin to cut Mr Buhari's lead of four million votes.

    Mr Abubakar also questioned why the parts of the north ravaged by the Islamist militia group, Boko Haram, had high voter turnouts.

  • Borno and Yobe states in the north-east are strongholds of the governing All Progressives Congress (APC). Their support has not wavered, even though security concerns have displaced some two million people.

  • The Independent National Electoral Commission (Inec) made provision for the 400,000 internally displaced people to vote in or around their camps.

    The region delivered high numbers despite attacks on election day by Boko Haram and its offshoot, the so-called Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP).

    No more presidential election posters for another four years

    Inec delayed the election day by a week because of logistical problems.

    This sparked complaints from people who had already travelled to their home towns to vote, and now would have to make the journey twice.

    However, this would have affected the supporters of both candidates equally.

    Some analysts suggest the use of electronic voting systems has made human error and manipulation more difficult.

    Though there are reported cases of electronic voter verification devices failing, many believe the use of technology has helped understand the electorate and their true behaviour at the polls, as well as curb voter fraud.


ruby Posted on February 28, 2019 10:43

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Former Swiss officer Johan Cosar sentenced for fighting IS

A Swiss military court has sentenced a former soldier for fighting against the Islamic State group in Syria.

Johan Cosar used his military training to recruit hundreds of men to defend Christian groups from IS.

He was found guilty of undermining Switzerland's neutrality and security by joining a foreign army - and given a three-month suspended sentence and fined 500 francs (£383; $500).

Cosar made no attempt to hide his actions, and remains proud of them.

He says he plans to appeal the sentence - which is relatively lenient when compared to the maximum of three years in prison.

He was born in Switzerland, and is a Swiss citizen. But his grandparents have Syrian roots, and the Cosar family are members of the Syriac Christian community.

After returning from Syria, he was arrested and charged under Switzerland's military penal code, which forbids Swiss citizens from serving in foreign armies.

The verdict reflects similar sentences handed down to other Swiss men over the last 10 years, most of whom joined the French Foreign Legion.

At the outset of the trial, an army spokeswoman said: "The law forbids fighting for a foreign force. Who that force actually is, is irrelevant."

Now 37, Cosar says he originally travelled to Syria to work as a freelance journalist, but when he saw that Islamist groups were advancing on Christian communities he felt he had no choice but to defend them.

He helped to found the Syriac Military Council, recruited for it, and readily shared the military skills he had learned in the Swiss army, among them weapons training and setting up checkpoints. At the height of the fighting, he was in charge of more than 500 men.

But joining a foreign army without the explicit permission of the government is forbidden under Switzerland's military penal code.

There are good historic reasons for this law: for centuries young Swiss men left their then-poor country to fight abroad. Swiss mercenaries were recruited by Napoleon, by Spain, the Netherlands, and even the British.

But once Switzerland established itself as a neutral country, its government decided it could be awkward to have Swiss men fighting on multiple sides of Europe's wars, and forbade the practice.

Today just one vestige of the Swiss mercenary tradition remains: the Swiss Papal Guard in Rome.

Cosar - in his civilian clothes - arrives in court in Switzerland

The opening of Cosar's trial was greeted by a small demonstration of his friends and family, carrying banners proclaiming "fighting Islamic State is not a crime."

Cosar himself has suggested he deserves a medal, not a trial, because he was "fighting terrorism" and protecting Christian minorities in Syria from, he believes, certain death.

The atmosphere inside the courtroom was described as relaxed.

Switzerland's government, however, does not want to send a signal that fighting in foreign wars will be tolerated in any circumstances at all, however "honourable".

Dozens of Swiss citizens have travelled to Syria to fight for IS, or to marry the Islamist group's soldiers. A few are already back and in prison.

Others are still in northern Syria, together with thousands of other foreign fighters, detained in camps run by Syrian opposition groups. Like countries across Europe, Switzerland is agonising over what to do about them.

Fighting for a banned group like IS carries a much stiffer prison sentence of up to 20 years. Switzerland's justice minister said this week she would like Swiss foreign fighters to be tried "on the spot" in Syria rather than back in Switzerland.

No-one, however, seems quite sure how that would work. The Swiss government is due to announce its policy on foreign fighters next week.

ruby Posted on February 28, 2019 10:12

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The 'caravans of love' visiting Spain's empty villages

Spain is ground-zero for rural depopulation within the European Union. Over decades, millions have migrated to the cities to find jobs. Those left behind in villages are often elderly - or they are single men working in agriculture. So, how does a lonely Spanish shepherd find love?

The ancient stone cottages of Pradena de Atienza, tumble down the sides of a valley. Antonio Cerrada is 52 and has worked here, with animals, all his adult life. Like his father and grandfather before him, his days are spent tending goats on the farm he runs with his brother.

Antonio's home may be just a two-and-a-half-hour drive north from Madrid, but with its bare mountains and the icy winter wind it feels much further.

"If it wasn't for me and my brother, this village would have been abandoned a long time ago," he says.

Fewer than 10 people live year-round in Pradena de Atienza. Antonio has seen dozens of his neighbours up sticks for a new life in the city. He never wanted to leave - but he longed for a partner. And in his 30s, he began looking in earnest for a woman who would not be put off by life in an almost-deserted village.

It wasn't easy.

"There was a television programme - Farmer Seeks Wife, or something. It was on TV on a Tuesday. I wanted to go on that programme," he says.

It didn't happen. Then Antonio heard about the Caravan of Women - or Caravan of Love, as it is sometimes known.

This is a commercial initiative bringing coach-loads of single women from Madrid to meet unattached men in the countryside at organised dinner-dances. Manolo Gozalo has been co-ordinating these excursions with his partner, Venecia Alcantara, since 1996.

The couple are perhaps their own best advert - they fell for each other during one of Manolo's first Caravans.

"We've organised around 600 parties so far… Maybe 180 couples have formed relationships. Of course, not all of them have lasted, but around 100 couples are still together," says Manolo.

Venecia Alcantara prepares for an evening's entertainment

When Antonio read the Caravan was coming to a restaurant in a village nearby, he dumped his overalls, scrubbed up, and headed out. Maria Carvajal, a Colombian living in the capital, was the last to get off the bus.

"We were all dancing, and Antonio kept looking at me," she remembers. "So I said to him, 'Do you want to dance?' He told me he didn't know how to… So I went and sat down again. But he just didn't stop staring at me! That's how it all started."

Antonio and Maria, on one of the first occasions they met

At dinner Antonio and Maria sat at the same table - a spark was lit.

"We talked and talked. Then we talked some more," recalls Antonio.

His shyness had dissolved by the time the music started again.

"We went downstairs to dance, drank some beer, and that was it!"

 Linda Pressly's report for Assignment on the BBC World Service

The couple arranged to meet a fortnight later at another Caravan party in the region. Then Antonio invited Maria to visit Pradena de Atienza for a weekend. He booked a rural hotel for just the two of them, and showed Maria around.

Antonio was relieved that Maria took to the almost-empty village immediately.

"I liked the tranquillity," she says simply.

And after working for more than a decade in Madrid as a cleaner, she was ready for a change.

"When I first arrived from Colombia, I would sometimes go dancing with my friends in Madrid. But after a while I was just going from home to work, from work to home."

A farmer watches the women arrive

Maria counts herself lucky.

"The friend I travelled with on the Caravan attended a lot of those parties over many months. She met a lot of people, but she never found anyone special. I met Antonio the first time I went."

The impetus for the caravans was rural depopulation - to encourage relationships between women from the cities with the men left behind in villages.

Rural outward migration began in earnest under Franco's dictatorship at the end of the 1950s, when factory jobs in urban areas offered opportunities to those arriving from farming communities. Now, the survival of more than 4,000 of Spain's rural hamlets and communities hangs in the balance - 1,300 municipalities have fewer than 100 people.

But the caravans have also courted controversy. Critics say transporting women across Spain for the pleasure and enjoyment of men "commodifies" them. And the fact that most of those on the Caravans are migrants - from Latin America and Eastern Europe - makes them more vulnerable. More than once, buses have been daubed with graffiti - Caravana Machista (the Macho Caravan) and La mujer no es ganado (a woman is not cattle).

In spite of the disapproval, Manolo Gozalo continues to organise one caravan a month. And even in an age of internet dating and hook-up apps, there is still take-up.

"People want to meet each other in real life - this is the advantage of the caravans," he says.

"There are lots of companies organising singles nights in the cities, but we just do it in the countryside where there are still so many single men. And a lot of those men don't know how to use the internet - some of them can barely use a mobile phone."

It is nearly six years now since Antonio and Maria met. Antonio is still hugely excited at finding love after looking for so long. And there's something else that's new - a toddler, also Antonio, born nearly 18 months ago.

"It's so exciting to see him when I get home from work - to see how he's doing, to play with him… I'm out with the animals all day, and then in the evenings I have someone to talk to… It's like a home now, not just somewhere to live," Antonio says.

So are they thinking about more additions to the family?

"No, no, no," says Maria laughing.

"I'm 51 now - I had little Antonio when I was 50, and fell pregnant when I was 49. I already have a daughter of 31, and I have grandchildren older than this one! So there are no more kids coming at my age! But Antonio wanted a child."

For Antonio Cerrada the novelty of being a parent has not worn off - he is enjoying every minute. And he is sanguine about the future, and whether his son will be one of those who helps to keep the village of Pradena de Atienza alive, or whether - like so many others - he leaves for the city.

"I'm going to leave my roots here for him just as my father left his roots for me. And if he wants to follow tradition in the village, well that's up to him."

When a Syrian stonemason and his family were granted asylum in Greece in 2017 they immediately made their way to the island of Crete - completing a journey begun by their great-grandparents 130 years ago.

ruby Posted on February 28, 2019 10:10

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Airlines reroute to avoid Pakistan

Airlines operating flights from East Asia to destinations in Europe are having to reroute their planes away from Pakistan and northern India.

The airspace is closed because of escalating tension between the two countries, following the shooting down of two Indian military jets.

Flights via Pakistan have been cancelled and other flights rerouted.

Thai Airways has taken the more drastic step of suspending all its flights destined for Europe.

With flight space south of Pakistan becoming crowded, the Bangkok-based airline has not been able to establish alternative routes for its flights.

"By closing the airspace, every flight from Thailand to Europe has been affected. For flights that are going to depart this evening, we will call an urgent meeting to consider the impact of such events," said Thai Airways president Sumeth Damrongchaitham.

Singapore Airlines and British Airways are among the operators which have had to reroute flights. Singapore Airlines said longer flight routes would make refuelling necessary.

Alex Seftel and travelling companion Hannah Kingsley are waiting for a new flight out of Bangkok

Alex Seftel, who works as a journalist, was en route from Bangkok to London on Wednesday on a flight with Taiwanese operator Eva Air. The flight was turned back over Calcutta in northern India.

"We were on the flight, a couple of hours in, and I noticed on the flight route map that it was going in the opposite direction," he said.

"There was a lot of circling around and we had very little information until we got into the airport."

Back in Bangkok, passengers waited several hours for an explanation before being transferred to a hotel for the night, with a new flight provisionally scheduled for early Thursday.

Some international flights have been rerouted through Mumbai on India's western coast.

Mark Martin, founder and chief executive at Martin Consulting India, said about 800 flights a day used the India-Pakistan air corridor, making it "very critical".

"You can't overfly China, so you have to overfly Pakistan and India and go to South East Asia and Australia. Most of the traffic destined for Bangkok and Singapore will have to fly over Iran and then possibly take a detour," he said.

The recent flare-up between Indian and Pakistan over the disputed region of Kashmir began when a suicide car bomb killed 40 Indian paramilitary police on 14 February. India retaliated with an airstrike on what it said was a militant training base on TuesdaIf you are happy to be contacted by a BBC journalist please leave a telephone number that we can contact you on. In some cases a selection of your comments will be published, displaying your name as you provide it and location, unless you state otherwise. Your contact details will never be published. When sending us pictures, video or eyewitness accounts at no time should you endanger yourself or others, take any unnecessary risks or infringe any laws. Please ensure you have read the terms and conditions.

ruby Posted on February 28, 2019 09:54

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Can Georgian wine win over global drinkers?

The former Soviet state of Georgia is considered to be the birthplace of winemaking. But as it aims to boost exports around the world, will its unique wines be too challenging for most drinkers?

I am following two men into a dark cellar that feels more like a tomb than part of a winery.

Buried underground are a number of qvevri - large lemon-shaped clay pots full of grape juice slowly fermenting into wine.

Each of the containers holds 2,000 litres of juice, which is added together with the grape skin and seeds, and left for six months.

It is an ancient form of winemaking that historians say was first used in Georgia in at least 5,980 BC. This makes the former Soviet state, located in the Caucasus region south of Russia, the world's oldest wine-producing country.

Georgian wine can be an acquired tatse

But what does wine made by the qvevri method taste like? The amber-coloured liquid is poured into my glass, and looks like brandy.

It tastes a bit meaty, and my taste buds revolt. My head gets fuzzy, almost straight away.

"It's a challenge for the newcomer, but when you get through the initial shock, it is rewarding," says Koka Archvadze, deputy director of the Tsinandali estate, some 100km (62 miles) east of Georgia's capital Tbilisi.

For centuries winemaking has been a key part of the Georgian economy, with most exports going to Russia. The relationship has, however, not always worked in Georgia's favour.

While Georgia has always prided itself on its large number of indigenous grape varieties, when part of the USSR from 1922 to 1991 the Communists dug up many of the treasured old, but low-yielding red and white vines. They did this so as to replace them with high-volume vines so they could make mass-produced wines.

The country's main wine region, Kakheti, is located in the east of the country

When Georgia gained its independence there was a big effort to increase propagation of the older varieties.

Then in 2006, with Russia buying 95% of Georgia's wine exports, Moscow banned their importation. Georgians believed the ban was a political attack in retaliation to the pro-Western policies of the then Georgian President Mikheil Saakashkvili.

The move crippled the Georgian wine industry, and it started to look for export sales in countries other than Russia.

Although Russia repealed the embargo in 2013, Georgia now exports its wine to 55 countries. And while Russia is still its largest export market, its share has fallen to 62%. It is followed by Ukraine at 12%, China 8% and Kazakhstan 4%. Overall exports last year were 18% higher than in 2017.

Irakli Cholobargia, from the Georgian National Wine Agency, says they are now increasingly focusing on western Europe and North America.

"In volume we are not the big country," he says. "Our maximum capacity [for production] now is 300 million bottles a year, which is the size of one big Australian winery.

"We cannot compete with France, Spain, Chile and South Africa [in size], but what we offer is our uniqueness, our grape varieties, and qvevri wine, our history.

"Our strategy now is to be established in the Western and Asian markets, and to diversify the whole export market."

One Georgian winemaker who is increasing his exports is Gia Piradashvili, founder of Winiveria.

His wines are now available in countries including Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Norway, and the US.

Gia Piradashvili has seen some of his wines stocked by Michelin-starred restaurants in Italy and France

"We do not want to mass produce commercial wines, and we don't work with large chains and supermarket," he says. "Instead we work with niche wine boutiques and high quality restaurants.

"I never thought that my wine would be offered in very good restaurants in Italy or France, Michelin-starred restaurants. But now we do, and we are not alone."

Back at the Tsinandali estate it now exports to countries including Switzerland and Monaco. Established in the 17th Century, Tsinandali is said to be the first winery in Georgia to produce its wine in glass bottles.

With qvevri wines accounting for up to 10% of Georgian production, many of the rest are made by modern methods. But with the grape varieties being so unique, the flavours can be different to what many people in western Europe or the US expect.

"The flavour profile for many people is not attractive quite frankly," says Lisa Granik, a New York-based expert on Georgian wine, who has the top Master of Wine qualification.

"Or it is so unusual that they have difficulty understanding it."

She adds that the Georgian names can also be hard to pronounce, and that many Americans "don't even know where Georgia is, they confuse it with the American state [of the same name]".

While some Georgian wines are old-fashioned, others are made in a modern way

Consistency is another challenge, says Ms Granik, because many Georgian wineries do not add any sulphur dioxide to their bottles to act as a preservative.

"It is difficult for them to withstand the travelling [as a result]," she says. "The hygiene and consistency has to be ramped up."

However, Ms Granik concludes that as more wine drinkers in the West want to try something new and different, Georgian wines could grow in popularity.

"There are a lot of millennials who don't want a Bordeaux. They are looking for something that is weird and wild.

"And they like this notion of natural, anti-corporate wine that's old and ancient, and they are open to this."

ruby Posted on February 28, 2019 09:50

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Eritrean Press: Reporting on Africa's most secretive state

He's the editor of a popular Facebook page that provides news from a country with one of the world's worst records on press freedom. But not even the journalists who write for him know his real identity.

On the surface, J's life appears fairly ordinary.

He has a day job, a family and a football team he follows religiously.

But J is also the anonymous editor of the largest page on Facebook reporting news from his home country, Eritrea.

Rami Malek won the award for best actor

Chinese broadcaster Mango TV is facing criticism after its online transmission of the Oscars amended a reference to homosexuality in best actor winner Rami Malek's speech.

Accepting the award for his performance in Bohemian Rhapsody, a biopic of British rock act Queen and lead singer Freddie Mercury, Rami Malek said the film could help those struggling with their identity.

The picture appears in a military magazine from 1950

You're not alone if this image looks familiar to you.

Though you've probably never seen a photo of Staff Sergeant Louis Cappazzoli or US Navy recruits Nancy Kelley and Joe Ewing, there is probably something in this picture that you do recognise.

Ninja is known for his trademark coloured hair and bandana

In 2018, Ninja was at the top of his game and untouchable.

At his peak Tyler "Ninja" Blevins led video gaming streaming site Twitch with more than 200,000 subscribers - people have paid $5, $10 or $25 (£3.84, £7.68 or £19.20) per month to watch him play video games such as Fortnite.

When a doctor in Ontario, Canada, became exasperated with some of her patients' sexually inappropriate behaviour, she took to social media to vent her feelings.

In two days, her post on discussion website Reddit was upvoted 28,000 times and sparked 2,000 comments, which included useful tips and advice, as well as similar stories.

Chyna got her start in WWE as Triple H's enforcer and took part in various intergender matches

Pro wrestling fans are divided after WWE announced that former wrestler Chyna would be inducted into their Hall of Fame this year as part of wrestling team D-Generation X.

Fans are overwhelmingly supportive of her induction, though many have argued that she should be added on her own rather than as part of a larger group.

People attend a vigil in front of the India Gate war memorial in Delhi

Indians from across the country have taken to social media to offer shelter to people from Indian-administered Kashmir after a suicide bomber killed more than 40 paramilitary police in the north India state.

The attack took place on the Srinagar-Jammu highway about 20km (12 miles) from the main city in Srinagar.

Zhai Tianlin enjoys the red carpet, here at the 2018 Bazaar Men of the Year in Beijing

Zhai Tianlin - also known as Ronald Zhai - is a well-known actor in China who is used to the limelight.

With more than 11 million followers on the social media website Sina Weibo, he's more accustomed to positive comments and praise from fans.

Simone Giertz's brain tumour 'Brian' in Antarctica

On 4 February, YouTuber Simone Giertz posted a photo on Instagram that surprised and delighted her followers in equal measure.

"You know what this is?" the 28-year-old wrote in a post liked almost 36,000 times. "You see that iceberg in the back? That's Antarctica. And that pink thing on the left? That is my brain tumour."

From a different angle the name on the hat becomes clear

Keeping warm whilst training is always advisable, but when a Georgian wrestler's hat was featured in the media, little did he know he would come under fire for his choice of clothing.

On 13 February, two Georgian news websites published a photo of Jaba Kvelashvili, who was out running with the national wrestling team, accusing him of wearing a "Russia" hat.

ruby Posted on February 27, 2019 11:40

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'Tiniest baby boy' ever sent home leaves Tokyo hospital

A baby boy who weighed just 268g (9.45oz) at birth has been released from hospital in Japan, and is believed to be the smallest boy in the world to be sent home healthy.

The baby was born by emergency C-section in August, and was so small he could fit into a pair of cupped hands.

The infant was nurtured in intensive care until he was released last week, two months after his due date.

He had grown to a weight of 3.2kg, and is now feeding normally.

Born at 24 weeks, the tiny boy spent five months in hospital.

"I can only say I'm happy that he has grown this big because honestly, I wasn't sure he could survive," the boy's mother said, according to Tokyo's Keio University Hospital.

Doctor Takeshi Arimitsu, who treated the extraordinary baby, told the BBC he was the the smallest infant born (on record) to be discharged from a hospital, according to a database of the world's littlest babies held by the University of Iowa.

He said he wanted to show that "there is a possibility that babies will be able to leave the hospital in good health, even though they are born small".

and weighing a healthy 3.2kg - twelve times his birth weight - just before he left hospital

The previous record-holder was a boy born in Germany, weighing 274g. The smallest surviving baby girl in that same database was also born in Germany, in 2015, and reportedly weighed 252g.

Keio University Hospital said the survival rate of babies born weighing less than a kilogram is about 90% in Japan. But for those born under 300g, that falls to around 50%.

Among the very smallest babies, the survival rate is much lower for boys than girls. Medical experts are unsure why, though some believe it could be linked to the slower development of male babies' lungs.

ruby Posted on February 27, 2019 11:32

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Pakistan India: Pakistan shoots down Indian aircraft over Kashmir

Pakistan says it has shot down two Indian military jets and captured two pilots in a major escalation between the nuclear powers over Kashmir.

India says it lost one MiG21 fighter and a pilot is missing in action.

Pakistani PM Imran Khan said the two sides could not afford a miscalculation with the weapons they had.

India and Pakistan claim all of Kashmir, but control only parts of it. They have fought three wars since independence from Britain in 1947.

The aerial attacks across the Line of Control (LoC) dividing Indian and Pakistani territory are the first since a war in 1971.

They follow a militant attack in Kashmir which killed 40 Indian troops - the deadliest to take place during a three-decade insurgency against Indian rule in Kashmir. A Pakistan-based group said it carried out the attack.

The BBC's Soutik Biswas, in Delhi, says the challenge for India and Pakistan now is to contain the latest escalation before things get completely out of control.

In a televised address, he warned against further escalation.

"If we let it happen, it will remain neither in my nor Narendra Modi's control," he said.

Pakistan's information ministry tweeted a video purporting to show a captured Indian pilot

Mr Khan referred to air strikes by Pakistan across the LoC earlier on Wednesday, saying that Pakistan had been obliged to respond to Tuesday's air strikes by India against militant targets in north-western Pakistan.

"Our action is just to let them know that just like they intruded into our territory, we are also capable of going into their territory," he said.

He added that Pakistan had offered to help with India's investigation into the Pulwama attack.

Mr Modi has not yet made any comment, but Indian Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj said her country would act "with responsibility and restraint".

"India does not wish to see further escalation of the situation," she said, speaking from a meeting with Russian and Chinese foreign ministers in China.

Pakistan's information ministry published but subsequently deleted a video purporting to show one of the Indian pilots that the Pakistani military says it has captured.

In the video, the pilot - who is blindfolded and appears to have blood on his face - identifies himself as Wing-Commander Abhinandan.

The ministry also tweeted what it said was footage of one of the downed Indian jets.

In India, Ministry of External Affairs spokesman Raveesh Kumar acknowledged the loss of a jet and its pilot.

He also said that an Indian plane had shot down a Pakistani fighter jet and Indian ground forces observed it falling on the Pakistani side of the LoC. Pakistan has denied any of its jets were struck.

Pakistan's assertion that it had shot down two Indian aircraft came shortly after Islamabad said its warplanes had struck targets in Indian territory.

Pakistan said it had "taken strikes at [a] non-military target, avoiding human loss and collateral damage".

Indian authorities said the Pakistani jets had been pushed back.

In a briefing, Pakistan's military spokesman Maj Gen Ghafoor said jets had "engaged" six targets in Indian territory but then carried out air strikes on "open ground".

"We don't want to go on the path of war," he said.

India said Tuesday's air strikes on Balakot in north-western Pakistan killed a large number of militants but Pakistan said there had been no casualties.

The US, EU and China have all called for restraint.

The challenge for India and Pakistan now is to contain the escalation before things get completely out of control.

It is almost unprecedented for two nuclear-armed countries to carry out air strikes into each other's territories.

"We are in uncharted waters," Husain Haqqani, the former Pakistani ambassador to the US and adviser to three Pakistani prime ministers, told me late on Tuesday.

An Indian defence analyst believes Indian security forces will now have to be prepared for a "full spectrum of conflict".

However Daniel Markey from Johns Hopkins University in the US says we are "several steps away" from nuclear escalation.

A further escalation, he believes, will happen if Pakistan's "next step were to raise the stakes by hitting Indian civilian targets".

That is highly unlikely.

Pakistan has closed its entire airspace, its civil aviation authority said. Nine airports in northern India have been closed, reports in India said.

The flight monitoring group Flight Radar says international flights are also avoiding the area.

Both Indian and Pakistani troops have been shelling across the LoC. Four Pakistani civilians were killed and 10 others were injured in cross-border shelling on Tuesday.

On the Indian side, five soldiers were also injured in the firing, officials told the BBC. Schools in at least two districts along the LoC - Rajouri and Poonch - have been closed.

People living along the de facto border have been asked to leave their homes.


ruby Posted on February 27, 2019 11:28

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Thousands of migrant children report they were sexually assaulted in U.S. custody

House democrats held a press conference Monday ahead of a vote to try to roll back President Donald Trump's declaration of a national emergency on the U.S.-Mexico border. (Feb. 25) AP


Thousands of migrant children who crossed the southern border into the U.S. have reported they were sexually assaulted while in government custody, according to Department of Health and Human Services documents released Tuesday by Rep. Ted Deutch's office.

In the past four years, 4,556 children said they were sexually assaulted while in the care of Health and Human Services' Office of Refugee Resettlement, which takes custody of unaccompanied minors who cross the southern border alone and those who are separated from their families. 

Allegations go back to 2015, meaning the reported assaults started under the Obama administration. But the allegations have increased in the past two years after the Trump administration's "zero tolerance" policy that led to at least 2,800 family separations flooding the department with additional children.

The data show the majority of the alleged assaults were carried out by other minors in custody, but at least 178 were carried out by staff.

"These documents detail an environment of systemic sexual assaults by staff on unaccompanied children," said Deutch, a Democrat from Florida, in a House Judiciary Committee meeting Tuesday. "These documents tell us that there is a problem with adults, employees of HHS, sexually abusing children."

Rep. Ted Deutch, D-Fla., speaks during a hearing before the House Judiciary Committee in the Rayburn House Office Building on Capitol Hill on Feb. 08, 2019 in Washington, DC. (Photo: Alex Wong, Getty Images)

Cdr. Jonathan White, who has overseen the care of migrant children at Health and Human Services, responded angrily to the congressman, saying the government officials at his department have never been accused of such a crime.

"Those are not HHS staff in any of those allegations," White said. 

Instead, the department contracts with more than 100 local shelters that house and care for children in its custody. Those facilities are inspected by state child welfare officials, and criminal charges can be filed against employees by state or federal prosecutors.

When a sexual assault is reported to Health and Human Services, White said, it is investigated fully, and those found to be legitimate are referred to the Justice Department of Justice for prosecution. 

Data provided by Deutch's office show that of the 4,556 complaints investigated by Health and Human Services, 1,303 – 29 percent – were sent to the Justice Department for further review. White said the vast majority of those cases later proved to be unfounded.

"Any time a child is abused in the care of (the refugee resettlement office) is one time too many," White said Tuesday.

The data were included as part of a large set of documents provided to the Judiciary Committee on the eve of Tuesday's hearing. At the start of the hearing, Chairman Jerry Nadler, D-N.Y., complained about the last-minute document dump, arguing that it took the administration six weeks to answer their questions.

"The Department of Justice and the Department of Homeland Security until last night stonewalled the legitimate request for information by this committee," Nadler said. "That is absolutely inexcusable."

The House Oversight and Reform Committee took it a step further Tuesday, issuing the first subpoenas against the Trump administration after failing to receive answers on separated migrant families that were first posed in July. The subpoenas were directed at Attorney General William Bar, Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen and Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar. 

"When our own government rips vulnerable children, toddlers and even infants from the arms of their mothers and fathers with no plan to reunite them, that is government-sponsored child abuse," said committee chairman Rep. Elijah Cummings, D-Md. "It is our job to step in and protect those children. Further delay is not an option."

Tuesday's hearing was the second time House Democrats have grilled the administration over family separations. The House Energy and Commerce questioned Health and Human Services officials on Feb. 7 about last summer's family separations and the separations that continue to happen when Homeland Security agents decide migrant parents pose a danger to their children. 

U.S. District Judge Dana Sabraw also is considering a request from the American Civil Liberties Union to vastly expand the number of separated migrant families the government must identify and possibly reunite. In June, Sabraw ordered the administration to reunite more than 2,800 families that were separated at the time. But media reports and an internal government watchdog revealed that the administration was systematically separating families a full year before it formally announced its zero-tolerance policy, possibly leading to thousands of additional separations.

The ACLU said the government needs to account for all those families. Sabraw is expected to decide on that request in the coming days.

The Department of Homeland Security also is dealing with a spate of deaths in its custody. Three migrants have died after crossing the border since December, and an Honduran woman delivered a stillborn baby at an immigration detention facility in Texas on Feb. 21.

sarah Posted on February 27, 2019 10:09

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New device can detect cancer in just a drop of blood

Some types of cancer, such as ovarian cancer, tend to remain undetected until they are too advanced for treatment to be effective. Now, an innovative tool may be able to detect cancer easily, quickly, and in minuscule amounts of blood.

A newly developed, highly sensitive device can detect cancer in very small clinical samples.

In a bid to find a simple, effective way of identifying hard-to-diagnose cancers, researchers from the University of Kansas (KU) in Lawrence and the KU Cancer Center and KU Medical Center in Kansas City have now developed an ultrasensitive cancer-detecting device.

The device, which is called a "3-D-nanopatterned microfluidic chip," could successfully detect cancer markers in the tiniest drop of blood or in a component of the blood called plasma.

Lead author Yong Zeng, an associate professor of chemistry at KU, and his team describe how the novel tool works in a paper that the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering has published.

This device, the scientists explain, identifies and diagnoses cancer by "filtering" for exosomes, which are tiny vesicles that some eukaryotic cells produce.

In the case of cancer cells, exosomes contain biological information that can direct tumor growth and spread.

"Historically, people thought exosomes were like 'trash bags' that cells could use to dump unwanted cellular contents," Zeng explains. "But, in the past decade," he adds, "scientists realized they were quite useful for sending messages to recipient cells and communicating molecular information important in many biological functions."

"Basically, tumors send out exosomes packaging active molecules that mirror the biological features of the parental cells. While all cells produce exosomes, tumor cells are really active compared to normal cells," Zeng notes.

A high-sensitivity diagnostic tool

The novel device is a 3-D nanoengineering tool with a herringbone pattern that "combs" for exosomes, pushing them to come into contact with the surface of the tool's chip for analysis. This process is called "mass transfer."

"People have developed smart ideas to improve mass transfer in microscale channels, but when particles are moving closer to the sensor surface, they're separated by a small gap of liquid that creates increasing hydrodynamic resistance," notes Zeng.

"Here, we developed a 3-D nanoporous herringbone structure that can drain the liquid in that gap to bring the particles in hard contact with the surface where probes can recognize and capture them," he further explains.

In order to develop this state-of-the-art device, Zeng and team collaborated with Andrew Godwin, who is an expert in tumor biomarkers and the current deputy director of KU Cancer Center.

To test the chip's effectiveness, the researchers used clinical samples from individuals with ovarian cancer, a type of cancer that is notoriously hard to detect.

In doing so, the team found that the chip was able to detect the presence of this cancer in even the tiniest amount of plasma.

"Our collaborative studies continue to bear fruit and advance an area crucial in cancer research and patient care — namely, innovative tools for early detection," says Godwin, pointing out that, "This area of study is especially important for cancers such as ovarian, given the vast majority of women are diagnosed at an advanced stage when, sadly, the disease is for the most part incurable."

Multiple clinical applications

The researchers are also thrilled that the new device is easy to make, as well as being cheap to produce, meaning that wide distribution could be possible without increasing patient costs.

"What we created here is a 3-D nanopatterning method without the need for any fancy nanofabrication equipment — an undergraduate or even a high school student can do it in my lab," notes Zeng.

"This is so simple and low-cost it has great potential to translate into clinical settings," he emphasizes, explaining that the team "[has] been collaborating with Dr. Godwin and other research labs at the KU Cancer Center and the molecular biosciences department to further explore the translational applications of the technology."

Even more importantly, Zeng and colleagues argue that this innovative device is, in principle, very adaptable. They believe that in the future, doctors could use it to diagnose many different forms of cancer, as well as other diseases.

"Now, we're looking at cell-culture models, animal models, and also clinical patient samples, so we are truly doing some translational research to move the device from the lab setting to more clinical applications," the lead researcher says.

sarah Posted on February 27, 2019 09:57

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Why is the MWC tech show full of men?

As I walked into the chaotic registration zone at the hall hosting Xiaomi’s press conference, my first event of the 2019 Mobile World Congress (MWC), I soon became aware that I looked… different.

I was dressed reasonably smartly and was even dutifully wearing my delegate's lanyard just like everybody else, even though I hate it – it is too long and I had to tie a knot in it when I realised people were not admiring my belt but trying to read my name.

But, in the sea of people milling around awkwardly, waiting to collect a pass giving them access to the event, my colleague Tracey and I were two of very few women.

It was a woman who gave me my pass. It was also a woman who was pouring out glasses of wine for the reception afterwards. But there were no women speaking inside the hall during the presentation.

We left in a hurry to go to another event across town, hosted by Huawei, the brand everybody is talking about both here in Barcelona and around the world.

Once there, I looked at the long queue snaking round outside the beautiful Italian Pavilion in the heart of Barcelona. I was once again in the minority. Inside, there were no women on stage here either.

I shared a taxi to the next event with analyst Carolina Milanesi, who travels the world attending technology industry events such as MWC. It was the same every year, she told me as we chatted.

“At CES [the Las Vegas technology fair], the thing was booth babes and skimpily dressed people – that’s not the case here but women are in the position of being the hostess, they are smart and look nice but they are serving,” she told me.

“You are either sexually objectified or you are the housewife but you are not seen as making a decision about tech or buying it.”

The conference halls are also full of men

At my final event of the day, hosted by Microsoft, the organisers had clearly tried to even out the presenters, alternating men and women – although after the first four speakers, there was a succession of men before the next woman joined the stage.

On day one of the exhibition itself, I spent an hour in the priority queue to try out Microsoft’s HoloLens2. Not only was I the only woman in that queue, there were only a tiny handful in the enormous, general queue, which, I heard, was four hours long. The security guard at the front was a woman.

Around the conference halls, I found myself constantly jostled by crowds of men swarming around concept cars, robots and 5G smartphones. Meanwhile, the press officers who were constantly pinging me on email, asking me to meet their exhibiting clients were more likely to be women than men.

Claire, not her real name, is attending MWC for the first time, working for one of the major global brands.

“I have to say I am surprised by how few women there are at the event - barring of course hospitality and venue staff,” she told me

“I thought that this should be different [to other industry events] - it's much more consumer focused - but a common theme among the women I've met here is the fact that the halls are a sea of testosterone.”

She thinks some technology companies need to rethink their priorities.

Men queue up to take a picture of Huawei's foldable phone

“The industry talks a good game about being relevant to women - but it's hard to believe that for some companies it's anything more than lip service when you look around the hall,” she said.

One company under scrutiny for many reasons already is Huawei, which has a huge presence here.

In one hall, it occupies a vast space, easily the size of a supermarket. And every single delegate's lanyard bears the Huawei logo.

We arrived before its stand opened but waiting to greet people when it did were women dressed in national costumes from around the world.

Thankfully, there were no bikinis but still I couldn’t quite decide whether this was a beautiful display of global inclusivity or a cringeworthy homage to Miss World.

The million dollar question here of course is – why aren’t there more women here? It’s not like female attendees are screened out. If you’ve got the 450 euros, and/or press or analyst credentials, you can come.

A spokesman for the Global System for Mobile Communications trade body, which organises MWC, told me that in 2018 24% of the delegates had been women, a 1% increase on 2017. Over 100,000 people attend.

He also told me about the Women4Tech programme, which runs a number of events aimed at women working in and around the industry during the four days of MWC.

I love tech, I have spent years covering the subject as a journalist and I don’t feel my gender prevents me from doing so. It’s very rare that I feel actively unwelcome at an event – I don’t here either - and the days when people used to ask me who was looking after my children while I was working seem, fortunately, to be behind me.

It’s more subtle than that - and not necessarily a conscious bias. Perhaps it’s a vicious cycle - women like me come along, feel a bit like we should be serving the drinks and then decide not to return. We have to shout louder, jostle harder, raise our arms higher to get those photos.

The men I have spoken to about it seem a bit embarrassed. The women seem resigned.

An industry friend of mine told me it was one reason why she chose to avoid these events.

Don’t forget, though, that women are equally expected to consume all of this technology. And if we disappear, our voices will not be heard when it comes to their design.

Here’s an example of what I mean.

At a networking event one evening, I chatted to the owner of a mobile phone company over a glass of wine. We were discussing the new trend for folding phones. And I said I would prefer one that folded out to be the size my existing phone is now.

He asked me why on Earth that was the case, so I showed him how awkwardly it fits into the pockets of my jeans. And he was absolutely astonished.

His fitted just fine, he said - he’d never even thought about it.

ruby Posted on February 27, 2019 09:44

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House votes to block Trump border wall national emergency

The US House of Representatives has voted to revoke President Donald Trump's emergency declaration over building a US-Mexico border wall.

The bid to overturn the declaration now goes to the Republican-majority Senate, where some conservatives have said they will vote with Democrats.

Mr Trump, who declared the emergency after Congress refused funding for the wall, has said he will veto the bill.

The resolution passed the Democrat-led House by a margin of 245-182.

Thirteen Republicans sided with Democrats in rejecting Mr Trump's national emergency, which suggests Congress would not have the two-thirds majority of both chambers needed to override a veto from the president.

Lawmakers are using a provision from the National Emergencies Act to overrule the president, but it requires both chambers to vote for it and to complete voting within 18 days.

The president has called the situation at the southern border a "crisis" and on 15 February, issued a declaration of emergency in order to bypass Congress and build a wall with military funding.

Democrats say the declaration is unconstitutional and that Mr Trump has manufactured the border emergency.

Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi said on Monday: "This isn't about the border. This is about the constitution of the United States. This is not about politics. It's not about partisanship. It's about patriotism."

What a difference a few years - and a new presidential administration - make.

In 2014, when Barack Obama used his executive authority to defer deportation of certain classes of undocumented migrants, Democrats defended him, while Republicans howled about an abuse of presidential authority.

Now it is Republicans attempting to explain President Donald Trump's use of an emergency declaration to redirect funds toward his border wall, while Democrats issue dire warnings of White House overreach.

Such is the ease with which the playing field flips in American politics.

The Democrats in control of the House of Representatives, joined by a handful of Republicans, have rebuked Mr Trump for this wall declaration.

That sets up a showdown in the Senate, where some conservatives - particularly those up for re-election in 2020 battleground states - are uneasy about going along with what they see as a dangerous precedent.

They could hand their president an embarrassing setback, forcing him to use his first veto of his administration. Then - because a congressional veto override seems unlikely - the legal battle will shift to the courts.

The battle for public opinion will stay firmly in the realm of the politicians, of course.

While many Republicans were critical of using an emergency declaration for a wall prior to Mr Trump's decree, some are now arguing the president is using the authority given to him by the constitution.

Republican leader Mitch McConnell says the emergency is an "understandable consequence" of Democrats refusing to negotiate with Mr Trump

House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy of California said Republicans would uphold Mr Trump's decision and accused Democrats of ignoring the emergency at the border.

Ohio Representative Warren Davidson said: "I think he didn't necessarily have to do the emergency declaration, but he did, and it's legal," the Washington Post reported.

But others maintained Mr Trump's response to a lack of congressional funding was inappropriate.

In the Senate, more Republicans have expressed concerns about setting a dangerous precedent, and Vice-President Mike Pence met members during a closed-door lunch on Tuesday to discuss the issue.

Majority Leader Mitch McConnell has maintained the emergency declaration is "the predictable and understandable consequences of Democrats' decision to put partisan obstruction ahead of the national interest".

Mr Trump's emergency declaration would open up almost $8bn (£6bn) for the wall, which is still considerably short of the estimated $23bn cost of the barrier along almost 2,000 miles (3,200km) of border, but far more than the $1.375bn allotted by Congress for barriers.

ruby Posted on February 27, 2019 09:42

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Michael Cohen 'to accuse Trump of racism and lies'

President Donald Trump's convicted former lawyer Michael Cohen is expected to accuse him of criminal conduct during a hearing on Capitol Hill.

Speaking on Wednesday to a House of Representatives panel, Cohen will allege possible tax fraud and racist language by Mr Trump, say US media.

The White House has questioned why lawmakers invited someone who has pleaded guilty to lying to Congress.

Cohen was sentenced to three years and will begin his custodial term in May.

On Tuesday, he was officially disbarred from practising law by the New York State Supreme Court, New York media reported.

The penalty came as he began three consecutive days of testimony in a closed-doors hearing before the Senate Intelligence Committee. His Wednesday testimony to the House Oversight Committee will be public.

The 52-year-old was convicted last year by New York federal prosecutors of campaign finance violations and tax evasion and by special counsel Robert Mueller of lying to Congress about Trump Organization plans in Moscow.

Mr Mueller is nearing the end of a 21-month justice department investigation into alleged Russian meddling in the 2016 elections, which both Mr Trump and Russia have denied.

At his December sentencing Cohen, a former Trump loyalist, blamed his misdeeds on "a blind loyalty" to Mr Trump.

Ahead of the hearings, White House press secretary Sarah Sanders called Cohen a "disgraced felon", saying it was "laughable that anyone would take a convicted liar like Cohen at his word".

Mrs Sanders' statement added it was "pathetic to see him given yet another opportunity to spread his lies" before Congress.

How the jailing of Cohen affects Trump

The Wall Street Journal reported a person familiar with the matter as saying Cohen would provide "evidence of criminal conduct since Mr Trump became president" that involved a hush money payment to conceal an alleged affair with adult film star Stormy Daniels.

The lawyer will accuse Mr Trump of being directly involved in efforts to conceal the alleged affair weeks before the 2016 election, according to US media.

The president has denied having the affair, or that he told Cohen to pay off Ms Daniels.

According to the Journal, Cohen will detail Mr Trump's "lies, racism and cheating" over a decade of working for him.

He is expected to offer financial documents showing possible tax fraud by Mr Trump, which may spur lawmakers to renew demands for the president's tax returns.

The president's former right hand man will also describe racist remarks from Mr Trump during their private conversations.

The Journal reports Cohen will accuse the president of questioning the intelligence of African Americans.

CBS News reported a source as saying the racist language allegedly used by the president is "chilling".

Cohen is also expected to offer explanations to lawmakers about why he lied to them about the Trump Organization's plans to build a tower in Moscow.\

Democrat Elijah Cummings, chair of the Oversight Committee, said last week lawmakers would question Cohen about Mr Trump's possible conflicts of interest and finances.

Republicans, meanwhile, have highlighted Cohen's unreliability.

In an op-ed in USA Today on Tuesday, Republican Representatives Jim Jordan of Ohio and Mark Meadows of North Carolina called the hearing "a partisan circus meant to destroy Trump".

Meanwhile, Florida Republican Congressman Matt Gaetz is denying that a tweet directed at Cohen was a threat.

In a text message exchange with a reporter for Vox, Mr Gaetz denied the tweet was considered witness-tampering, contending it was "witness-testing".

It comes after Cohen's originally scheduled testimony was postponed, after he cited "threats against his family" brought by Mr Trump and his lawyer Rudy Giuliani.

ruby Posted on February 27, 2019 09:39

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Cardiff Half Marathon runners died of 'natural causes'

Two men who died after collapsing at the end of the Cardiff Half Marathon last year died from natural causes, a coroner's investigation has found.

Ben McDonald, 25, from Cardiff, and Dean Fletcher, 32, from Exeter, went into cardiac arrest after crossing the finishing line within three minutes of each other in October 2018.

They both died at the city's University Hospital of Wales.

No inquest will take place, the coroner's office said.

Mr McDonald worked at Cardiff International White Water centre. He ran the half marathon with his girlfriend Amy Stanton-Foo, his two brothers, a brother-in-law and two sisters-in-law.

Speaking after his death Ms Stanton-Foo described him as a "happy, smiley, adventurous, loving person".

Father-of-one and former Cardiff University student Mr Fletcher had been part of a 350-person team which was raising funds for neuroscience, mental health and cancer research at the institution.

He was described as an "amazing husband and father".

ruby Posted on February 27, 2019 09:26

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Vietnam deports Kim Jong-un impersonator ahead of summit

A Kim Jong-un impersonator has been deported from Vietnam ahead of the real North Korean leader's meeting with US President Trump in Hanoi this week.

Hong Kong resident Howard X staged a fake summit with Trump impersonator Russell White last week.

The two were later held for questioning by Vietnamese police and told to cease all their political jesting.

Howard X says officials have since told him his visa is "invalid", but says he has received no further explanation.

"Satire is a powerful weapon against any dictatorship. They are scared of a couple of guys that look like the real thing," Howard X, who was wearing a black suit and thick black glasses in the style of Kim Jong-un, told reporters.

He and Mr White took part in a faux summit in Vietnam's capital, Hanoi, telling reporters they intended to scale down North Korea's nuclear ambitions.

"We're working toward peace. Through negotiations, with dialogue, we want to help North Korea of course," Canada-born Mr White told reporters at the time, dressed as Donald Trump.

"Hopefully he can overlook all my nuclear missiles and lift the sanctions," answered Howard X, a full-time impressionist who visited Singapore ahead of the first US-North Korea summit last year.

The men were later detained by police whilst giving an interview to a local TV station.

Vietnamese police told the pair to stop their impersonations and said they could only travel around the city with an approved itinerary and escort, AFP news agency reports.

"The real reason is I was born with a face looking like Kim Jong-un, that's the real crime," said Howard X.

Howard and a Donald Trump impersonator go hand in hand in Singapore

He added he believed he was being deported because the North Korean leader had "no sense of humour".

The Kim lookalike took part in similar satirical stunts during the first US-North Korea summit in Singapore last year.

He was also escorted away by security at the 2018 Winter Olympics in South Korea after dancing in front of North Korea's cheerleading squad.

President Trump and Kim Jong-un are due to meet in Hanoi on 27-28 February for talks expected to focus on persuading North Korea to give up its nuclear weapons programme.

Their first summit in Singapore last June generated significant coverage and optimism, but delivered very few concrete developments.

Both sides said they were committed to denuclearisation, but gave no details of how this would be carried out or verified.

ruby Posted on February 27, 2019 09:03

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George Pell: Cardinal's bail revoked after sexual abuse conviction

Cardinal George Pell has been remanded in custody after being found guilty of sexual offences against children in Australia.

The ex-Vatican treasurer abused two boys in 1996, a jury found in December.

Pell's bail was revoked on Wednesday, placing him in custody for the first time. He will be sentenced on 13 March.

The cardinal is the most senior Catholic figure ever convicted of sexual abuse. He maintains he is innocent and has lodged an appeal.

A jury unanimously convicted Pell of one charge of sexually penetrating a child under 16, and four counts of committing an indecent act on a child under 16.

The verdict and details of the case had been kept secret until Tuesday due to legal reasons.

Each charge carries a maximum sentence of 10 years in jail, a court heard on Wednesday.

Pell's conviction has rocked the Catholic Church. He was considered one of the Pope's closest advisers and spent five years overseeing the Vatican's finances.

On Tuesday, the Vatican confirmed that Pell was prohibited from public ministry, and banned from having contact with minors. He has to abide by these rules until any appeal is over.

Pell was archbishop of Melbourne when he abused two 13-year-old boys in a cathedral following a mass, the County Court of Victoria heard last year.

After telling them they were in trouble for drinking communion wine, Pell forced each boy into indecent acts, prosecutors said. He abused one of the boys again in 1997.

Pell has been swarmed by media and onlookers before his court appearances

The court heard testimony from one of the victims. The other died of a drug overdose in 2014.

In a preliminary sentencing hearing, Pell's lawyer, Robert Richter QC, described it as "no more than a plain, vanilla sexual penetration case".

He submitted 10 character references for the cardinal, including from former Australian Prime Minister John Howard.

However, prosecutors argued that Pell's "serious offending" warranted significant jail time.

Judge Peter Kidd said the abuse was "callous" and "brazen", adding: "It did involve a breach of trust and a degree of impunity. How else did he think he was going to get away with it?"

He revoked Pell's bail following a lengthy hearing.

George Pell bowed towards the judge and leaned on his walking stick, before officers took him down from the courtroom and into custody.

Earlier, he'd arrived to face a crowd of angry campaigners waving placards - many had come to see the moment he lost his liberty.

Though an appeal looms, Pell will return to court in two weeks to learn his sentence.

The Australian cleric rose in prominence as a strong supporter of traditional Catholic values, often taking conservative views and advocating for priestly celibacy.

He was summoned to Rome in 2014 to clean up the Vatican's finances, and was often described as the Church's third-ranked official.

Pell (r) was one of the Pope's closest advisers at the Vatican

But his career has been dogged first by claims that he covered up child sexual abuse by priests, and then later that he was himself an abuser.

Pell was demoted from the Pope's inner circle in December. His term as Vatican treasurer expired on Sunday.

The sexual abuse of children was rarely discussed in public before the 1970s, and it was not until the 1980s that the first cases of molestation by priests came to light, in the US and Canada.

In the decades since, evidence of widespread abuse has emerged globally. In Australia, an inquiry heard that 7% of the nation's Catholic priests had abused children.

Pope Francis has established a committee to tackle sexual abuses. In recent days, he has promised concrete action, calling clergy guilty of abuse "tools of Satan".

But critics say he could do more to combat paedophiles and those who conceal abuse.

ruby Posted on February 27, 2019 08:50

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Pakistan-India: Pakistan 'shoots down two Indian jets' over Kashmir

Pakistan says it has shot down two Indian Air Force jets in a major escalation of the Kashmir conflict.

A spokesman said one plane had fallen inside Pakistani territory and two pilots had been arrested. There is no comment from India. Pakistan has denied reports one of its jets was shot down.

Both India and Pakistan claim all of Kashmir, but control only parts of it.

The nuclear powers have fought several wars since independence from Britain in 1947. All but one were over Kashmir.

The aerial attacks across the Line of Control (LoC) dividing Indian and Pakistani territory are the first since a war in 1971.

They follow a militant attack in Kashmir which killed 40 Indian troops - the deadliest to take place during a three-decade insurgency against Indian rule in Kashmir. A Pakistan-based group said it carried out the attack.

Pakistan's assertion that it had shot down two Indian aircraft came shortly after Islamabad said its warplanes had struck targets in Indian territory.

Pakistan said it had "taken strikes at [a] non-military target, avoiding human loss and collateral damage".

Indian authorities said the Pakistani jets had been pushed back.

In a briefing, Maj Gen Ghafoor says that Pakistan "had no alternative to respond" to Tuesday's Indian air strikes on its territory.

However he said Pakistan had not hit Indian military targets because "we don't want to go on the path of war".

India said Tuesday's air strikes on Balakot in north-western Pakistan killed a large number of militants but Pakistan said there had been no casualties.

India has reportedly announced restrictions on its airspace. The Vistara airline said flights in the region were being suspended. Pakistan has also stopped flights from at least five airports including Islamabad and Lahore, reports say.

The flight monitoring group Flight Radar says international flights are also avoiding the area.

Troops have been shelling across the LoC. Four Pakistani civilians were killed and 10 others were injured in cross-border shelling on Tuesday.

On the Indian side, five soldiers were also injured in the firing, officials told the BBC. Schools in at least two districts along the LoC - Rajouri and Poonch - have been closed.

People living along the de facto border have been asked to leave their homes.

In December Yogita Limaye examined why there had been a rise in violence in Kashmir

October 1947: First war between India and Pakistan over Kashmir just two months after they become independent nations.

August 1965: The neighbours fight another brief war over Kashmir.

December 1971: India supports East Pakistan's bid to become independent. The Indian air force conducts bombing raids inside Pakistan. The war ends with the creation of Bangladesh.

May 1999: Pakistani soldiers and militants occupy Indian military posts in Kargil mountains. India launches air and ground strikes and the intruders are pushed back.

October 2001: A devastating attack on the state assembly in Indian-administered Kashmir kills 38. Two months later, an attack on the Indian parliament in Delhi leaves 14 dead.

November 2008: Co-ordinated attacks on Mumbai's main railway station, luxury hotels and a Jewish cultural centre kill 166 people. India blames Pakistan-based group Lashkar-e-Taiba.

January 2016: Four-day attack on Indian air base in Pathankot leaves seven Indian soldiers and six militants dead.

18 September 2016: Attack on army base in Uri in Indian-administered Kashmir kills 19 soldiers.

30 September 2016: India says it carried "surgical strikes" on militants in Pakistani Kashmir. Islamabad denies strikes took place.


ruby Posted on February 27, 2019 08:46

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Concerns raised over Putin spokesman's daughter working for EU

Concerns have been raised after it emerged that Elizaveta Peskova, the daughter of Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov, is interning for a French member of the European Parliament.

The right-wing MEP Aymeric Chauprade said Ms Peskova's internship with him began in November 2018 and would run until late April.

Fellow MEPs have objected to her having access to meetings and databases.

But a Parliament spokeswoman said Ms Peskova could only see public files.

Elizaveta (Liza) Peskova has been studying law in Paris and is well-known socially. Her Instagram account has some 78,000 followers.

She has lived in France for several years and has not shied away from politics. She visited a shipyard two years ago in Crimea after the region was seized and annexed by Russia from Ukraine in 2014.She has more recently posted observations on the French "Gilets Jaunes" (yellow vests) protests, comparing scenes in Paris at night to the computer game "Zombie Apocalypse".

Her father, Dmitry Peskov, is President Vladimir Putin's long-serving press secretary. Last month, Mr Peskov castigated the EU for imposing sanctions on two Russians blamed for the poisoning of Sergei Skripal and his daughter in the UK.


Mr Peskov has served the Russian president for a number of years

With European Parliament elections in May, there are fears that Russia may seek to influence the polls, as it has been accused of doing in France and elsewhere.The question for critics is exactly what material Ms Peskova will have access to.

As a resident of France, she is entitled to work at the Parliament as an intern and her employer, Mr Chauprade, insists she has access only to details already in the public domain and nothing that is secret, not even the work of the EU-Russia delegation to which he belongs.

Mr Chauprade, a former international adviser of far-right leader Marine Le Pen, is a well-known supporter of Russia's seizure of Crimea. He is vice-chair of the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy Group led by UK Eurosceptic Nigel Farage.

A Parliament spokeswoman confirmed that Ms Peskova could go to any public meeting or delegation meeting as long as it was not restricted or held in private. Interns did not have access to confidential documents but would have access to the email database, she said.

The internship with Mr Chauprade was a contractual relationship with the MEP and not with the parliament itself, the spokeswoman said.

But Mr Chauprade is on the Parliament's security and defence subcommitteeas well as the foreign affairs committee, so he will receive a number of key documents.

Latvian MEP Sandra Kalniete said there was no security clearance at the Parliament as there was at Nato. "The internship of Putin press secretary Peskov's daughter is contrary to any security standards," she told the country's public broadcaster, LSM.

French Socialist MEP Christine Revault d'Allonnes-Bonnefoy called the revelation "shocking".

"The daughter of the Kremlin's spokesman is not just anybody. I am surprised this hiring was validated by the parliament personnel service," she told the AFP news agency.


ruby Posted on February 26, 2019 13:02

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French Islamic State accused handed over to face trial in Iraq

Thirteen French citizens accused of fighting for the Islamic State group are to be tried in Iraq rather than face charges back home in France.

Iraqi President Barham Saleh said the 13 were handed over by Syrian Kurdish forces last month.

French President Emmanuel Macron declined to comment, saying it was a sovereign matter for Iraq.

The news comes as several Western countries struggle with the fate of alleged militants returning from Syria.The UK, Belgium, the Netherlands and the United States have all grappled with the question of whether to allow those who left to join the Islamic State to return - and potentially face prosecution when they do.

The fate of the 13 French citizens was revealed during a press conference between presidents Macron and Saleh in France, following bilateral talks.

They are due to be tried on terrorist charges - which may carry the death penalty under Iraqi law.

French broadcaster BFMTV reports that it will make no difference whether they are accused of directly fighting for the Islamic State group, or merely providing other assistance to it - the penalty remains the same.

In France, the government says those who commit such crimes abroad should be tried in the territory in which the offence occurred, a stance it has repeated recently amid a global debate on returnees from Syria.

Despite facing trial abroad, the French captives can expect the normal consular assistance offered by the republic to any of its citizens jailed in a foreign country.

Iraq's decision to prosecute the 13 allows France to sidestep the political maze facing many other countries - though some reports suggest there may be dozens of other French captives awaiting a similar fate.

The French case is the latest development in an ongoing crisis about how to treat those who travelled to Syria during its civil war, but now want to return to their home countries in Europe.

Kurdish fighters from the Syrian Defence Forces (SDF) hold hundreds of prisoners captured during their fight against the IS group. But the SDF is an alliance of militias, and has warned that they cannot prosecute their captives and imprison them indefinitely.

US President Donald Trump, meanwhile, has urged European countries to take custody of their citizens and put them on trial - warning that if they refuse, the prisoners may simply be released instead.

The question over their fate has prompted national debate in several countries.

In the UK, there is a national debate over the future of Shamima Begum, who left London in 2015, aged 15, to travel to Syria. Now living in a refugee camp, and with a newborn child, she has asked to return.

Shamima Begum: 'I got tricked and I was hoping someone would have sympathy with me'

The UK has instead said it will strip her of her citizenship - arguing that it can do so despite international law, because she is entitled to Bangladeshi citizenship through inheritance.

Her husband is a Dutch convert to Islam, and is thought to have surrendered to a group of Syrian fighters about two weeks ago. She has previously said she may apply for Dutch citizenship.

And despite President Trump's urging to European nations to take in their citizens, he has publicly banned the return of Alabama native Hoda Muthana.

Meanwhile, in Belgium, the government is wrapped in a court case to prevent women returning from camps in Syria - though it remains open to taking in their children.

Russia has repatriated more than 100 children whose parents are imprisoned in Syria and Iraq, returning them to family members.

ruby Posted on February 26, 2019 12:52

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Saudi Arabia: Crown Prince MBS takes charm offensive East

Saudi Arabia has embarked on a global charm offensive.

In the last few days it has appointed its first-ever female ambassador to its top diplomatic post - Washington DC - while its de facto leader, the controversial Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, has just concluded a high-profile tour of Asia, discussing billions of dollars' worth of trade and investment deals in China, Pakistan and India.

Less than five months have elapsed since the West recoiled in horror over the grisly, planned murder of Saudi journalist and critic Jamal Khashoggi inside Saudi Arabia's consulate in Istanbul.

The CIA and most western intelligence agencies concluded that the crown prince, known by his initials MBS, was most likely behind the murder, something Saudi officials strongly deny.

Previously feted in Western cities, MBS was largely shunned by the West at the recent G20 summit in Buenos Aires.He faces ongoing condemnation in the Western media, not just for the Khashoggi affair, but for locking up peaceful protesters, including women, and for pursuing a catastrophic war in Yemen.

So what does he do? He turns eastwards, just as other Gulf Arab leaders did in 2011 following European criticism of autocratic practices in their region. He got a red-carpet welcome.

In Pakistan, a nuclear-armed country now in dire financial difficulties, MBS dispensed Saudi largesse and was honoured with a 21-gun salute, an escort of fighter jets, and a gift of a gold-plated submachine gun.

In India he was warmly greeted by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and went on to discuss huge investment deals, primarily in the energy sector. And in China, Asia's emerging superpower, the crown prince held talks with President Xi Jinping and signed a $10bn (£7.6bn) refinery deal.

How the murder of journalist could affect the Saudi crown prince

Saudi royals do not travel alone. If you are the crown prince and de facto ruler, you take with you a vast entourage of 1,100 in several planes, occupying hundreds of hotel rooms, as well as a personal, portable gym.

The entourage includes journalists from the state-controlled media who can then report back to the population how well their leader is being received.

  • MBS's position inside Saudi Arabia was already considered secure even before this trip - there are no other serious contenders for the throne. But being warmly embraced in important Asian countries plays well to a Saudi audience and helps dispel the notion of him being a pariah in the wake of the Khashoggi murder.

America though, will be a tougher nut to crack. It is no coincidence that the newly appointed Saudi ambassador to Washington is a woman.

Princess Reema bint Bandar al-Saud is a successful businesswoman in her own right. She has also championed a greater role for Saudi women in society.

Princess Reema (r) met British PM Theresa May in Riyadh in 2017

But she will have to contend with a highly critical Congress, and US media that have reported extensively on the shortcomings in Saudi Arabia's human rights record.

Her predecessor in the post, Prince Khalid bin Salman Al Saud, departed Washington in a hurry after the Khashoggi affair. He has been accused of complicity in the journalist's murder, which he denies, and was told not to return without a clear explanation of what happened.

So where does all this leave Europe? In short, in a quandary.

Saudi Arabia is Britain's biggest Middle East trading partner with up to 50,000 British jobs dependant on it.

With its enormous oil wealth, the desert kingdom is a massive market for exporters and - controversially - a major buyer of British weaponry, something the opposition leader Jeremy Corbyn has promised to end.

Relations with Britain and France are cooler, but neither has taken significant measures against Riyadh. Germany, however, has reacted to the Khashoggi killing with a freeze on arms exports, something that now threatens to disrupt the UK-Saudi defence relationship since parts of the Typhoon fighter jet are produced in Germany.

Saudi Arabia's message to the West appears to be twofold. By drawing closer to big, important nations in Asia, it says: "We do have other friends around the world and they're happy to do business with us." By sending a young female ambassador to Washington, it says: "We know we have ground to make up so we are happy to listen to what you have to say."

What matters to Saudi Arabia's critics though, is whether any of this will make any difference to the way in which all political dissent has been suppressed at home, something that continues to embarrass those Western governments doing business with Riyadh.

ruby Posted on February 26, 2019 12:48

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Firm fined £600,000 over bridge worker death in Aberdeen

A firm has been fined £600,000 after a worker died during construction of a new bridge in Aberdeen.

Ian Walker, 58, from Dundee, was crushed by an excavator at the site of the so-called third Don crossing in January 2016.

Balfour Beatty Civil Engineering Ltd admitted breaching Health and Safety and Construction Regulations guidelines at Aberdeen Sheriff Court.

The £22.3m bridge - named the Diamond Bridge - opened in June 2016.

HSE principal inspector Niall Miller said after the case: "This was a tragic and wholly avoidable incident, caused by the failure of the civil engineering company to implement safe systems of work, and to ensure that health and safety documentation was communicated and control measures followed."

The bridge, linking Danestone and Tillydrone, was constructed to help ease congestion.

ruby Posted on February 26, 2019 12:45

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Scottish woman's shock at finding snake in suitcase from Australia

When Maria Boxall found a snake in her luggage following a holiday in Australia, she thought it had been placed there by a member of her family.

But the Scottish grandmother quickly realised it was not a practical joke - when she touched it, it moved.

She had inadvertently transported the reptile in her suitcase on a flight from Queensland to Glasgow.

Ms Boxall only discovered it hiding in a shoe - complete with shed skin - as she unpacked at her Stirlingshire home.

The snake was taken outside in the shoe and contained by a relative until Scottish SPCA staff arrived in Bridge of Allan.

It turned out to be a python, which is not dangerous.

The snake was curled up inside a shoe

Mrs Boxall's son-in-law Paul Airlie told the story of the international-travelling snake to an Australian radio station.

He said she had mentioned thinking she had seen a snake in her room over there before she left but had thought it was gone.

Scottish SPCA animal rescue officer Taylor Johnstone said: "I can confirm that we removed a snake from a property in Bridge of Allan.

"I responded to a call from a woman who had just returned from a holiday in Australia who had found a small snake inside her shoe in her suitcase.

The snake was taken outside and contained until the SSPCA would collect it.

"When I arrived, the snake had been contained by the caller, so I safely removed the snake from the property. Upon examination, the snake was found to be a spotted python which is not venomous.

The snake is in quarantine at our animal rescue and rehoming centre in Edinburgh."

It is thought the snake may be given to a zoo after it passes quarantine.

ruby Posted on February 26, 2019 12:39

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George Pell: Reporting on a secret trial about child sex abuse

Reporting on a secret trial can be confronting and confusing.

For several months, journalists like me have been going back and forth to Melbourne's County Court, unable to broadcast what we'd learnt about George Pell's crimes.

Now the suppression order on the case has been lifted, those details can finally be made public.

Outside court, there was at times high drama - all the sound and fury of cameramen jostling and campaigners brandishing placards at the cardinal as he arrived.

But after the initial hearings, the crowds and the cameras petered out, and the cardinal no longer needed a police escort to sweep him into the building.Inside court, things also settled into a predictable routine.

George Pell would sit in the dock with his notebook, listening, writing, but never really betraying any emotion.

He was excused from standing due to a knee injury, and often sat with his legs stretched out.

He wasn't called to give evidence, and so we didn't hear a word from him for the majority of the trial.

As the court heard vivid descriptions of how in 1996 he had forced himself upon two victims, pushing his archbishop's robes to one side in order to expose himself, he didn't flinch

Pell's case has drawn huge attention around the world

The jury was told how one young boy had pleaded for Pell to let him go - only to be shocked into a silence that would last for decades.

Pell's defence barrister is one of Australia's most experienced and expensive lawyers - his speeches focused on areas of doubt.

Robert Richter QC repeated over and over how highly improbable - if not impossible - it would have been for any of the abuse to have occurred.

Instead, he insisted that his client had become a scapegoat for the crimes of other Catholic clerics.

At one stage, Mr Richter even referred to Pell as "the Darth Vader of the Catholic Church", painting him as a bold leader vilified by the media.Pell certainly has his critics - some came to the court to watch and see him in the dock.

Although the proceedings couldn't be reported, there was nothing to stop members of the public coming in to listen.

Campaigners and abuse survivors sat mixed in with the media, some sighing as they heard accounts of the abuse.

Some of Pell's supporters attended too, sending sympathetic smiles in his direction, and exchanging small talk as he went in and out of the court.

After two trials, one hung jury and many months of waiting - the results of this long process are now public.

The pace of justice has felt slow at times, but it has resulted in one of the Catholic Church's most prominent and powerful figures being held to account.

ruby Posted on February 26, 2019 12:37

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Fiona Onasanya: Speeding MP released from prison

Disgraced MP Fiona Onasanya has been released from prison less than four weeks after she was convicted of lying to police over a speeding ticket.

Onasanya denied being behind the wheel when her car was spotted being driven at 41mph in a 30mph zone in July.

She was found guilty of perverting the course of justice and served her sentence at Bronzefield Prison, Surrey.

The 35-year-old solicitor was expelled by the Labour Party but remains MP for Peterborough.

Onasanya was convicted at the Old Bailey

The MP's Nissan Micra was caught by a speed camera in Thorney

Onasanya's Nissan Micra was caught by a speed camera in Thorney, Cambridgeshire.

She was jailed for three months on 29 January having been convicted at the Old Bailey.

Her release comes a day after the attorney general's office rejected a complaintwhich said the sentence given to her was unduly lenient.

Onasanya - who has said she intends to appeal against her conviction - is the first sitting MP to be jailed since Terry Fields was sentenced to 60 days for failing to pay his £373 poll tax bill in 1991.

ruby Posted on February 26, 2019 12:35

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Brexit: Theresa May facing no-deal revolt as cabinet meets

Theresa May is facing the threat of a revolt by Remain-supporting ministers as she chairs a crucial cabinet meeting on her Brexit negotiations.

Three ministers - including one who attends cabinet - say they will quit unless the PM agrees to take no-deal off the table.

But one of the PM's closest allies has warned pushing back the 29 March exit would not make getting a deal easier.

Mrs May is due to make a statement to MPs at about 1230 GMT.

The BBC's Nick Watt says the feeling is Mrs May will "lean into" the rebel ministers' demands and Brexiteers have been told to expect a "very difficult message".

She has just returned from a summit in Egypt where she held a number of meetings with EU leaders and continued to press for more concessions to placate critics of her deal, in particular on the Irish border backstop.

News of the growing unrest within the cabinet came after Labour announced a significant shift in its policy - a decision to back another referendum if its own alternative Brexit plan is rejected.

Mrs May's Brexit deal was comprehensively rejected by MPs on 15 January and she has said they'll get a second chance to vote on it - possibly with some changes - by 12 March.

Margot James, Richard Harrington and Claire Perry have threatened to quit unless no deal is taken off the table

But writing in the Daily Mail, ministers Richard Harrington, Claire Perry and Margot James said Mrs May must promise now that she will rule out the possibility of the UK leaving the EU without a deal if her agreement is rejected again, and instead seek a way to delay.

Mr Harrington, a business minister, told the BBC's Victoria Derbyshire that it was "absolutely absurd" that, with 31 days to go before the UK is due to leave, a no-deal exit was still a possibility.

"The idea that no deal is a negotiating tool is absolutely incorrect. No-one believes it in the EU. As far as we are concerned the responsible thing is to rule it out."

Theresa May held talks with Angela Merkel and other EU leaders at a summit in Egypt

Unless Mrs May was willing to provide the necessary reassurances, he said he would vote for Parliament to "take control" of the process by backing an amendment - a legislative tool - being put before the Commons by Labour's Yvette Cooper and Conservative Oliver Letwin.

If passed, it would give MPs the power to demand a delay to Brexit if a deal cannot be agreed by 13 March.

He said he was prepared to rebel and quit, if necessary, insisting this would be the "honourable thing" to do.

"Warm words alone will not be enough. It has to be a clear undertaking that she is prepared to remove no-deal and have a short extension to Article 50."

Three other senior cabinet ministers, Greg Clark, Amber Rudd and David Gauke, have already signalled they could also be prepared to vote for the Cooper-Letwin option if there is no breakthrough in the next few days.

Mrs May has long resisted any suggestion that the UK's departure from the EU could be postponed beyond 29 March.

Leading Tory Brexiteer Esther McVey, who quit the cabinet in November, said those pressuring the PM to rule out no deal should be making their views known in private.

Going public showed they were "losing their nerve" and "bottling" it, she told the BBC.

"These people should not be threatening and going to the papers and weakening her hand. If they are going to go, then just go."

If the UK did leave without a formal agreement on 29 March, she said the UK and EU should enter into what she described as a short "static period" where everything remained the same.

This, she said, would give both sides the time and space to discuss how trade would operate, such as what, if any tariffs, would apply to imports and exports.

Cabinet Office Minister David Lidington said that calls to avoid a no-deal Brexit by delaying the deadline for leaving the EU did not resolve the issues.

"It ends up simply deferring the need to face up to taking decisions. It's not an actual course of action in its own right," he told the BBC.

Labour has said it will support the Cooper-Letwin amendment, making its chances of success far higher.

But leader Jeremy Corbyn also wants to use Wednesday to put his own plan for Brexit - which includes a "comprehensive customs union" with the EU and "close alignment" with the single market - before the Commons.

He told his MPs on Monday night that if - as expected - that plan is rejected, the party will formally throw its weight behind another public vote.

Shadow Brexit secretary Sir Keir Starmer said that if Labour's Brexit proposals did not get through Parliament "we, the Labour Party will either put down ourselves, or support an amendment, in favour of a public vote".

That vote, he added, "ought to be on the option, on the one hand, of a credible leave deal and. on the other hand, remain".


  • Crucial cabinet meeting to focus on the Brexit impasse
  • Then Theresa May gives a statement to the House of Commons updating them on her progress
  • Meanwhile, members of her negotiating team return to Brussels to continue talks


ruby Posted on February 26, 2019 12:25

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paxex Posted on February 25, 2019 16:46

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Venezuela Aid Live: Why is Branson being told to 'back off'?

To say Venezuela is in the middle of a political crisis would be an understatement. President Nicolás Maduro is locked in a power struggle with Juan Guaidó, an opposition politician and the self-declared interim leader of the country.

So what better way to make the situation less complicated than to add a spat between one of the world's richest people and the bass player from Pink Floyd?

Yes... it's a pretty weird situation.

Richard Branson, the British billionaire behind the Virgin group of companies, announced last week that he was planning to hold a concert to raise money for aid for Venezuela - inspired by similar benefits like Live Aid.

The concert, Venezuela Aid Live, is due to happen this Friday in the Colombian border town of Cucuta, near a bridge that connects it to Venezuela (a bridge, incidentally, that President Maduro has blocked off with shipping containers to prevent US aid getting in).

Mr Branson says the concert will be free for people who can go in person, and live-streamed internationally for those who can't.

The ultimate goal, Mr Branson says, is to raise tens of millions of dollars through donations, and to get aid through President Maduro's blockades - although how exactly he will do that remains unclear.

"Let the music inspire and mobilise you," he adds. "United through music, we can make a huge difference and help bring an end to the needless suffering of millions."

And now, in response, Pink Floyd bassist Roger Waters has released a video telling Mr Branson to "back off".

In a two-minute video posted on Twitter, the musician says Mr Branson's "Live-Aid-ish" concert has "nothing to do with humanitarian aid at all".

"It has to do with Richard Branson, and I'm not surprised by this, having bought the US saying: 'We have decided to take over Venezuela, for whatever our reasons may be,'" Mr Waters says.

"But it has nothing to do with the needs of the Venezuelan people, it has nothing to do with democracy, it has nothing to do with freedom, and it has nothing to do with aid."

He adds that he has "friends that are in Caracas" who claim there is "no civil war, no mayhem, no murder, no apparent dictatorship, no suppression of the press"

Mr Branson says it was a direct request from Mr Guaidó and opposition leader Leopoldo López.

In an earlier social media video, the billionaire says: "Juan Guaidó, who has been recognised as Venezuela's legitimate president by over 40 nations, and the EU, and Leopoldo López, an opposition leader currently under house arrest in Caracas, have asked us to help organise a beautiful concert, to help bring global attention to this unacceptable, and preventable, crisis."

Mr López has been under house arrest since 2014.

An official line-up hasn't been released yet but a few celebrities have confirmed that they're taking part.

The concert's organisers have also released a list of 32 people they have invited to perform, which includes young Latin stars Rudy Mancuso, Juanes and Despacito singer Luis Fonsi, and Swedish DJ Alesso.

Lele Pons, a Venezuelan-American singer and actress who was the most-looped individual on Vine before it shut down in 2016, and Venezuelan singer Danny Ocean have both released videos saying that they will perform.

According to Mr Branson, the goal is to raise $100m (£76.8m) in 60 days through donations on a website.

 added goal, organisers say, is to "reopen Venezuela's border so humanitarian aid can finally reach those who need it the most".

Which takes us neatly to our next point...

How are they going to get aid into the country?

This is a much trickier question - and the answer is: we don't know.

For context: there is a bridge between Cúcuta and Venezuela, with US military planes and lorries carrying tonnes of humanitarian aid parked on the Colombian side.

So, the aid is there. Mr Maduro, however, has blocked the Venezuelan side with shipping containers.

Lorries and planes carrying tonnes of humanitarian aid are being held at the border

Mr Maduro says the aid is part of a plot by the US to invade the country, while his Vice President, Delcy Rodriguez, claims the US aid is contaminated with carcinogens to "poison our populations".

The president has said that he's willing to take aid from his allies - Cuba and China, for example - but he has explicitly refused to accept anything from his opponents.

Mr Branson, who explicitly blames Mr Maduro for the crisis, would most likely fall under this category.

Mr Guaidó has said he plans to get aid into the country on 23 February, by urging Venezuelans to mobilise en masse and form "caravans" and a "humanitarian avalanche" at the borders. Even with this effort, it is uncertain whether or not aid will be allowed in.

A spokesman for Mr Branson told BBC News that he was working with the Colombian entrepreneur Bruno Ocampo to organise the concert and sort out the logistics - while Mr Ocampo said their methods for getting aid over the border "remain confidential, to prevent compromising our efforts".

He added: "Our plans are well orchestrated and we will soon share more details."

This is the view of Mr Waters - and of humanitarian organisations like the United Nations and Red Cross.

For example, United Nations spokesman Stephane Dujarric told reporters earlier this month that "humanitarian action needs to be independent of political, military or other objectives".

He added: "What is important is that humanitarian aid be depoliticised and that the needs of the people should lead in terms of when and how humanitarian aid is used."

Mr Waters referenced this when he told Mr Branson: "Don't politicise aid. Leave the Venezuelan people alone to exercise their legal right to self-determination."

The bass player, however, waded into politically murky waters himself when he confidently proclaimed that there was "no apparent dictatorship" in Venezuela.

A spokesperson for Mr Branson told BBC News that the primary aim of the concert was to "raise awareness" and to "create a way for the global community to pledge their support".

They added: "While the political context of the crisis is complex, this is purely a humanitarian effort that cannot replace the need for political and diplomatic solutions."

Live Aid was arguably the pinnacle of the benefit concert, eventually raising a reported $125m for victims of the famine in Ethiopia in 1985. In fact, it's so legendary that it was recreated in all its glory in the recent Freddie Mercury biopic Bohemian Rhapsody.

And announcing that he was hosting Venezuela Aid Live, Mr Branson specifically says he was inspired by the Concert for Bangladesh in 1971, and by Live Aid, and how they both "moved the world to action".

Richard Branson says he was partly inspired by Live Aid 1985

But behind the glamour of these concerts were troubling reports that the money raised hadn't quite ended up where it was supposed to.

In the case of Concert for Bangladesh, the cash was tied up in a decade-long battle with tax officials in the US, while Live Aid was plagued by unconfirmed reports claiming the money it had raised was actually being used by Ethiopia's leader to amass weapons to crush opposition rebels.

There have been similar concerns about subsequent benefit concerts. Huge, high-production gigs have often been followed up with questions about how the money was organised and distributed to the people that needed it.

Benefits after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, for example, are thought to have raised more than $9bn - but these fundraising efforts were later marred by allegations of financial impropriety by musician Wyclef Jean's charity Yele Haiti. Years after the disaster, people in Haiti said their communities were far from being rebuilt.

Venezuela Aid Live's organisers, however, tell BBC News that Live Aid and Concert for Bangladesh "helped raise global awareness" and "mobilised unprecedented public support".

"It is fair to say that in the decades since [these concerts], co-ordination in the humanitarian sector has improved enormously," they say, adding that the technology involved is better too.

"Based on the many lessons learned, the organising team is committed to an approach that is professional, unbureaucratic, efficient, transparent, and accountable."

All of the money raised will be transferred to the Colombian NGO Solidaridad Por Colombia, they add, which will hold it in a trust before working with aid experts to distribute it.


ruby Posted on February 20, 2019 17:01

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LGBT group severs links with Navratilova over transgender comments

A US-based organisation that campaigns for LGBT sportspeople has cut its links with tennis legend Martina Navratilova over comments she made about male-to-female transgender athletes.

The 18-times Grand Slam winner wrote it was "cheating" to allow transgender women to compete in women's sport as they had unfair physical advantages.

Athlete Ally said the remarks were transphobic and perpetuated myths.

It said it had sacked the star from its advisory board and as an ambassador.

In an article for the British newspaper The Sunday Times, Navratilova wrote: "A man can decide to be female, take hormones if required by whatever sporting organisation is concerned, win everything in sight and perhaps earn a small fortune, and then reverse his decision and go back to making babies if he so desires."

She added: "It's insane and it's cheating. I am happy to address a transgender woman in whatever form she prefers, but I would not be happy to compete against her. It would not be fair."

Trans sportswomen quickly hit back. Rachel McKinnon, who last year became the first transgender woman to win a world track cycling title, called the comments "disturbing, upsetting and deeply transphobic".

In its statement, Athlete Ally said Navratilova's comments were "transphobic, based on a false understanding of science and data, and perpetuate dangerous myths that lead to the ongoing targeting of trans people through discriminatory laws, hateful stereotypes and disproportionate violence".

Martina Navratilova won 18 Grand Slam singles titles

It added: "This is not the first time we have approached Martina on this topic. In late December, she made deeply troubling comments across her social media channels about the ability for trans athletes to compete in sport. We reached out directly offering to be a resource as she sought further education, and we never heard back."

Athlete Ally said Navratilova joined as an ambassador and was honoured with an Action Award at the group's first annual gala in 2014.

She has since taken part in advocacy campaigns including signing an open letter calling on the International Basketball Federation (Fiba) to overturn its ban on the hijab and an open letter speaking out against an anti-trans bill in Texas in 2017.

The group said the former champion had not yet responded to its decision to drop her.

Navratilova has been a longstanding campaigner for gay rights and suffered abuse when she came out as gay in the 1980s.

Under guidelines introduced in 2016, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) allows athletes transitioning from female to male to participate without restrictions.

Male to female competitors, however, are required to have kept their levels of testosterone - a hormone that increases muscle mass - below a certain level for at least 12 months.

ruby Posted on February 20, 2019 16:40

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House launches probe of US nuclear plan in Saudi Arabia

The US is rushing to transfer sensitive nuclear power technology to Saudi Arabia, according to a new congressional report.

A Democratic-led House panel has launched an inquiry over concerns about the White House plan to build nuclear reactors across the kingdom.

Whistleblowers told the panel it could destabilise the Middle East by boosting nuclear weapons proliferation.

Firms linked to the president have reportedly pushed for these transfers.

The House of Representatives' Oversight Committee report notes that an inquiry into the matter is "particularly critical because the Administration's efforts to transfer sensitive US nuclear technology to Saudi Arabia appear to be ongoing".

President Donald Trump met nuclear power developers at the White House on 12 February to discuss building plants in Middle Eastern nations, including Saudi Arabia.

And Mr Trump's son-in-law, White House adviser Jared Kushner, will be touring the Middle East this month to discuss the economics of the Trump administration's peace plan.

Lawmakers have been critical of the plan as it would violate US laws guarding against the transfer of nuclear technology that could be used to support a weapons programme.

They also believe giving Saudi Arabia access to nuclear technology would spark a dangerous arms race in the volatile region.

Saudi Arabia has said it wants nuclear power in order to diversify its energy sources and help address growing energy needs.

But concerns around rival Iran developing nuclear technology are also at play, according to US media.

Previous negotiations for US nuclear technology ended after Saudi Arabia refused to agree to safeguards against using the tech for weaponry, but the Trump administration may not see these safeguards as mandatory.

Adviser Jared Kushner watches alongside a member of the Saudi Delegation during a meeting between President Trump and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.

The House report is based on whistleblower accounts and documents showing communications between Trump administration officials and nuclear power companies.

It states that "within the US, strong private commercial interests have been pressing aggressively for the transfer of highly sensitive nuclear technology to Saudi Arabia".

These commercial entities could "reap billions of dollars through contracts associated with constructing and operating nuclear facilities in Saudi Arabia".

The White House has yet to comment on the report.

The report includes a timeline of events and names other administration officials who have been involved with the matter, including Energy Secretary Rick Perry, Mr Kushner, Mr Trump's inaugural committee chairman Tom Barrack and former National Security Adviser Michael Flynn.

Flynn was found guilty of lying to the FBI about Russian contacts as a part of special counsel Robert Mueller's inquiry into alleged Russian meddling in the 2016 presidential election.

  • IP3 International, a private company led by ex-military officers and security officials that organised a group of US companies to build "dozens of nuclear power plants" in Saudi Arabia
  • ACU Strategic Partners, a nuclear power consultancy led by British-American Alex Copson
  • Colony NorthStar, Mr Barrack's real estate investment firm
  • Flynn Intel Group, a consultancy and lobby set up by Michael Flynn

Former National Security Adviser Michael Flynn was deeply involved with the nuclear plans, the report says

The report states that Flynn had decided to develop IP3's nuclear initiative, the Middle East Marshall Plan, during his transition, and while he was still serving as an adviser for the company.

In January 2017, National Security Council staff began to raise concerns that these plans were inappropriate and possibly illegal, and that Flynn had a potentially criminal conflict of interest.

Following Flynn's dismissal, however, IP3 continued to push for the Middle East Plans to be presented to Mr Trump.

According to the report, one senior official said the proposal was "a scheme for these generals to make some money".

And whistleblowers described the White House working environment as "marked by chaos, dysfunction and backbiting".

The report says an investigation will determine whether the administration has been acting "in the national security interests of the United States or, rather, [to] serve those who stand to gain financially" from this policy change.

These apparent conflicts of interest among White House advisers may breach federal law, and the report notes that there is bi-partisan concern regarding Saudi Arabia's access to nuclear technology.

The oversight committee is seeking interviews with the companies, "key personnel" who promoted the plan to the White House, as well as the Departments of Commerce, Energy, Defence, State, Treasury, the White House and the CIA.

ruby Posted on February 20, 2019 16:36

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Islamic State group: Civilians evacuated from last Syria enclave

Civilians have been evacuated from the last village in Syria still held by the Islamic State (IS) group.

At least 15 lorries carrying men, women and children were seen leaving Baghuz, near the Iraqi border, where 200 families were reportedly trapped.

The US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) alliance, which is besieging the area, said it did not yet know if any IS fighters were among the passengers.

There have been conflicting reports about the state of the operation.

The UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights told the BBC it believed all the civilians and militants who were in Baghuz had left.

The monitoring group cited its sources as saying the militants had agreed to surrender following extensive negotiations with SDF.

However, the US-led Global Coalition to Defeat IS says it cannot verify reports about militants surrendering.

On Twitter, it said the SDF were continuing to evacuate civilians and that the "most hardened" fighters remained within Baghuz.

On Tuesday, the UN expressed concern about the fate of some 200 families reportedly trapped in the area.

Many of the men on the lorries were wearing checkered keffiyehs

Human rights chief Michelle Bachelet said they were apparently being actively prevented from leaving by IS and continued to be subjected to intense bombardment by SDF and US-led coalition forces.

A convoy of about 50 lorries arrived on the outskirts of Baghuz after Ms Bachelet spoke. But none of them had departed by nightfall, Reuters news agency reported.

US-led coalition aircraft reportedly carried out two strikes in the area before the first lorries left on Wednesday.

"We have special forces working on the evacuation of civilians. After many days of trying, we were able to evacuate the first batch today," SDF spokesman Mustafa Bali told AFP news agency.

Mr Bali said he did not know how many people were being brought out, or whether they included any IS militants, but that it would become clear once the lorries reached a nearby SDF screening point.

"There are still civilians inside [Baghuz]," he added.

On Tuesday, the SDF said that its fighters would attack the IS pocket once it had evacuated all the civilians who wanted to leave. The militants, it warned, had only two options - surrender or die.

Some 20,000 civilians who have fled Baghuz in recent weeks have been taken by the SDF to a makeshift camp for displaced people at al-Hol, in Hassakeh province.

Is this the end for Islamic State?

Among them are the wives and children of IS militants and many foreign nationals, including the British teenager Shamima Begum, who was 15 when she ran away from her home to join IS four years ago.

Ms Begum, who has just given birth to a son, has said she wants to return to the UK. But the government wants to revoke her British citizenship - a decision she called "unjust".

Five years ago, IS controlled 88,000 sq km (34,000 sq miles) of territory stretching from western Syria to eastern Iraq. It proclaimed the creation of a "caliphate", imposing its brutal rule on almost eight million people and generating billions of dollars from oil, extortion, robbery and kidnapping.

Now, an estimated 300 militants are holed up inside about 0.5 sq km of land.

ruby Posted on February 20, 2019 16:19

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How many IS foreign fighters are left in Iraq and Syria?

Tens of thousands of foreign nationals have travelled to Syria and neighbouring Iraq to fight for the Islamic State (IS) group.

With the end of the IS territorial "caliphate" imminent, the US has led calls to repatriate the hundreds of men women and children who have been detained on the battlefield. However, many countries have so far been reluctant to do so.

Jihadists began travelling to Iraq in 2003 when a US-led invasion that toppled Saddam Hussein's regime triggered a Sunni insurgency. Hundreds are thought to have joined al-Qaeda in Iraq, a precursor to IS.

The Islamic State group urged Muslims to migrate to their new "caliphate"

Many more went to Syria after a civil war erupted there in 2011. Their presence complicated the conflict and helped make it overtly sectarian in nature, pitching the country's Sunni majority against President Bashar al-Assad's Shia Alawite sect.

There was a huge surge in arrivals after IS seized control of swathes of Syria and Iraq in 2014 and urged Muslims to migrate to their new "caliphate".

How many foreigners joined IS?

The United Nations has said that more than 40,000 foreign fighters from 110 countries may have travelled to Syria and Iraq to join terrorist groups.

A July 2018 study by the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation (ICSR) at King's College London based on official, academic and other data concluded that 41,490 people - 32,809 men, 4,761 women, and 4,640 children - from 80 countries were affiliated with IS specifically.

Researchers found 18,852 came from the Middle East and North Africa, 7,252 from Eastern Europe, 5,965 from Central Asia, 5,904 from Western Europe, 1,010 from Eastern Asia, 1,063 from South-East Asia, 753 from the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, 447 from Southern Asia, and 244 from Sub-Saharan Africa.

Approximately 850 people from the UK were among them, including 145 women and 50 children.

The US-led Global Coalition to Defeat IS, which has provided air support and military advisers to local forces in Iraq and Syria since 2014, has said it believes the vast majority of IS militants are dead or in custody. But it has declined to speculate on the number of foreign fighters who may have been killed.

The head of MI5 said in October 2017 that more than 130 Britons who had travelled to Iraq and Syria to fight with IS had died.

An official from a US-backed alliance of Kurdish and Arab militias, the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), said on 18 February that it had about 800 foreign fighters from almost 50 countries in its prisons. At least 700 women and 1,500 children were being held at camps for displaced people, Abdul Karim Omar added.

Few of the SDF's detainees have been identified. But El Shafee Elsheikh and Alexanda Kotey are among six from the UK to have been named. The pair are alleged to have been part of an IS execution cell dubbed "the Beatles" that beheaded at least 27 Western hostages.

Interview with so-called 'IS Beatles' duo

Mr Omar reiterated that the SDF wanted the foreign fighters to be repatriated. He warned that they were a "time bomb", saying an attack on northern Syria by Turkey - which has vowed to crush a Kurdish militia that dominates the SDF - could spark chaos and allow the jihadist to escape.

However, their home countries have raised concerns about bringing hardened IS members back and the challenges of gathering evidence to support prosecutions.

There are believed to be another 1,000 foreign fighters of various, sometimes undetermined, nationalities under arrest in Iraq, according to the UN.

Djamila Boutoutaou from France was sentenced to life in prison in Iraq for being an IS member

It is not clear whether that figure includes women and children. But a group of more than 1,300 of them are known to have been detained near Tal Afar in 2017.

Human Rights Watch said at least 72 of those women had been put on trial by June 2018, accused of illegal entry and being a member of, or assisting, IS. Most of them, it added, had been found guilty and sentenced to death or to life in prison. They were from a number of countries, including Turkey, Russia, France and Germany. Children aged nine and above have also been prosecuted.

After five years of fierce and bloody battles, Syrian and Iraqi forces, backed by world powers, have driven IS out of almost all of the territory it once controlled.

However, UN Secretary General António Guterres told the Security Council at the start of February 2018 that IS was reported to still control between 14,000 and 18,000 militants in Iraq and Syria, including up to 3,000 foreigners.

Is this the end for Islamic State?

Mr Guterres published his findings as the SDF launched an offensive to capture the last pocket of territory controlled by IS in Syria.

Foreigners who have fled the fighting around the village of Baghuz and been detained by the SDF include the British teenager Shamima Begum, who was 15 when she ran away from her home to join IS.

ICSR researchers found that at least 7,366 foreigners affiliated with IS had travelled back to their own countries, including 256 women and up to 1,180 children.

By June 2018, 3,906 had returned to countries in the Middle East and North Africa, 1,765 to Western Europe, 784 to Eastern Europe, 338 to Central Asia, 308 to South-Eastern Asia, 156 to Southern Asia, 97 to the Americas, Australia and New Zealand, and 12 to Sub-Saharan Africa.

Of the 425 who returned to the UK, only two women and four children were confirmed, according to the ICSR.

The UN has expressed concern about returnees becoming active again on release from prison or for other reasons. It has also said radicalised women and traumatised minors may pose a threat.

More than 2,000 children of foreign fighters are being detained at prisons in Iraq and at three SDF-run camps in Syria, often in poor conditions with a lack of access to education and basic services.

Most of the children are being held with their mothers. Many of their fathers are detained elsewhere, missing or dead. Some of the children have meanwhile been orphaned.

The UN has called for all children under 18 to be repatriated immediately

The majority of the children have not been charged with any crime, according to Human Rights Watch. But most of their home countries have resisted calls to repatriate them. Officials have said traumatised children may be security threats, or that it is difficult to verify their nationalities.

The UN has warned that the children may be at risk of becoming stateless, despite having citizenship or a claim to citizenship of a country. It has called for all children under 18 to be repatriated immediately and for the development of specialised child-protection programmes to ensure their full reintegration into society in their home countries.

In January, two Trinidadian boys taken to Syria by their father were released from an SDF camp and repatriated with the help of Pink Floyd co-founder Roger Waters.

ruby Posted on February 20, 2019 16:08

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Letter from Africa: How 'cheating husbands' are linked to Sudan's protests

In our series of letters from African journalists, Zeinab Mohammed Salih explores how women in Sudan are using a Facebook group about love to expose alleged abuse amid anti-government protests.

Unprecedented numbers of women are taking to the streets to join daily nationwide protests that erupted in mid-December.

Despite a violent crackdown by the security forces and reports of sexual harassment, they remain undeterred.

More than 50 people are thought to have died at the hands of security agents and many have been tortured, rights groups say.

Yet women make up 70% of marchers at some protests, observers say, defiant in the face of the repressive laws of the conservative, Islamic state.

They all wear headscarves in compliance with the country's Public Order Act, which regulates what women should wear - they can, for example, be flogged for wearing clothes such as trousers that are considered indecent.

Hair cut with razorblades

But a 23-year-old graduate told me how her headscarf was ripped off when she was detained on 31 January by security agents at a protest in the capital, Khartoum.

"They cut the bun off my head with a razorblade and they threatened me with rape when I was taken in their truck from downtown Khartoum," Jode Tariq said.

What happens inside Sudan’s secret detention centres?

A 24-year-old related a similar incident in Khartoum earlier in January.

"They cut my hair along with another woman at an unknown location used as a detention centre," Afraa Turky said.

Female journalists Shamael al-Nnoor and Durra Gambo, who were both arrested for covering the protests over the last month, said some young women they met while in custody told them they had been sexually abused by security agents.

And dozens of other women thrown into jail have not been heard from since their detention.

Sudan's Public Order laws

  • The law is Article 152 of the Criminal Code and applies to "indecent acts" in public
  • This can include wearing an "obscene outfit" or "causing an annoyance to public feelings"
  • Women must wear a headscarf and cannot wear trousers
  • Between 40,000 and 50,000 women are arrested and flogged every year by public order police because of their clothing
  • Women have also be charged under this law for being alone with a man
  • People can also be charged for drinking alcohol under these laws

But women are fighting back against these alleged abuses using a private all-women Facebook group that was set up three years ago to identify cheating husbands and follow their crushes.

Sudan's powerful National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS) is behind the brutal response to the demonstrations that started in the eastern city of Atbara initially in response to a hike in bread prices.

Now photos taken at protests of suspected NISS agents are shared in the group, called Minbar-Shat, which in Sudanese Arabic means "Extreme Love".

If anyone is able to identify or knows anything about them - they share these details, sometimes even giving names, addresses and phone numbers. This has led to some protesters writing graffiti on houses saying a known NISS agent lives there.

'Don't look at me'

The Sudanese authorities have tried to block social media in the country, but the women bypass the blockade by using Virtual Private Networks (VPN), which can hide a user's location.

Protesters angered with rising prices want President Bashir to step down

So successful has the strategy been that NISS agents have started to wear face masks in an effort to avoid identification and ostracisation.

Some protesters have told me that when they were arrested they were forced to look down towards the ground for hours.

One said, "I was beaten on my head with a stick because I accidentally looked up and he told me, 'Do you want to take my pictures to Minbar-Shat? Don't look at me.'"

The protesters themselves also have to wear masks but for different reasons.

They get them from pharmacies to avoid the bad smelling tear gas usually thrown at them during the protests.

Minbar-Shat is now active in posting on Toyota's Facebook page informing the company about the use of their cars in Sudan by NISS members to arrest and sometimes run over protesters.

U-turn over dress laws?

Sudan's poor record on women's rights is well documented, with Human Rights Watch saying the security forces have often used sexual violence and intimidation to silence women.

Many protesters now wear masks too because of the tear gas

Ten days ago a group of women were raped by a government militia at a camp for internally displaced people in northern Darfur, where the UN says rape has been used as a weapon of war during the conflict that began more 13 years ago to demand greater political and economic rights for communities in the region.

According to the No To Women Oppression group, thousands of women get arrested and flogged each year by the police for wearing indecent clothes or simply for being out with men.

President Bashir, seen addressing supporters last week, has led Sudan for nearly 30 years

Interestingly, President Omar al-Bashir, who has led a hardline administration since coming to power in an Islamist-backed coup in 1989, has softened his language about the Public Order laws.

The 75-year-old sees their harsh implementation as the reason for the protests and says they are too strict an interpretation of Sharia.

This is indeed a turnaround as he defended the law vociferously in 2010 when there was an outcry over a video on social media showing a woman screaming as she was whipped for wearing trousers.

But his words, spoken during a recent meeting with newspaper editors, seem unlikely to be able to douse the flames.

Ms Tariq and Ms Turky, who both had their hair cut by agents last month, insist they will not stop protesting until Mr Bashir leaves office.

ruby Posted on February 20, 2019 13:59

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How will Pope Francis deal with abuse in the Catholic Church?

In an effort to deal with the sex scandals rocking the Roman Catholic Church, the Pope has convened an extraordinary summit of bishops in Rome.

This follows his recent, unprompted, admission that priests had exploited nuns as "sex slaves" at a convent in France.

Pope Francis decided to call this global conference after discussions with the so-called C9. This is the group of nine cardinal advisers who were appointed soon after Francis was elected.

The Pope is under serious pressure to provide leadership and generate workable solutions to what is the most pressing crisis facing the modern Church.

Stories of abuse have emerged in every corner of the world. And the Church has been accused of covering up crimes committed by priests, leaving its moral authority in tatters.

Pope Francis must also confront the assumptions, attitudes and practices that have allowed a culture of abuse to flourish. The extent of this challenge may prove overwhelming.

Journalist Jason Berry was one of the first people to expose the extent of abuse in the Church

The summit, to be attended by the heads of all national bishops' conferences from more than 130 countries, is only the beginning of an attempt to address a sickness that has been poisoning the Church since at least the 1980s.

When Jason Berry, a local newspaper reporter in the US state of Louisiana, began following the story of an abusive priest called Father Gilbert Gauthe, he did not expect his work to ignite an international scandal that is still ablaze more than 30 years later.

Mr Berry's work led to the 1992 book Lead Us Not Into Temptation, based on civil legal actions that the Church settled with multiple accusers towards the end of the 1980s.

In 2002, Mr Berry's work was followed by an investigation at the Boston Globe newspaper that provided an even more extensive narrative of clergy abuse and cover-up. The journalists won a prestigious Pulitzer Prize and their work was dramatised in the film Spotlight.

The work of the Boston Globe's Michael Rezendes, (left), Walter V Robinson, and Sascha Pfieffer (right) led to the Academy Award-winning film Spotlight

The scandals kept coming.

Consider six of the eight Roman Catholic dioceses in the state of Pennsylvania, which were the subject of scrutiny last year.

The State Attorney, Josh Shapiro, subpoenaed and reviewed half a million internal diocesan documents. Dozens of witnesses gave evidence, some clergy admitted to their offences. Mr Shapiro's report, published in December, was devastating.

"Over 1,000 child victims were identifiable from the Church's own records," he wrote, with "credible allegations against over 300 predator priests".

The report, which is more than 1,000 pages long, covers the past 70 years - and the examples are horrific.

In the diocese of Scranton, a priest raped a girl and when she became pregnant arranged for an abortion. The priest's line manager, his area bishop, wrote a letter.

"This is a very difficult time in your life and I realise how upset you are," he wrote. "I too share your grief."

The letter was not addressed to the girl, but the priest.

In another diocese, a priest visited a seven-year-old girl in hospital after she had undergone a tonsillectomy - and raped her.

In another, a priest abused a nine-year-old and then rinsed out the boy's mouth with holy water "to purify him".

The report concluded that predatory paedophiles had been able to abuse children because the Church hid their activities by moving accused clerics on to other parishes and not reporting their offences to the police.

Rape claims

The Rt Rev Franco Mulakkal had risen from small-town Kerala, on India's south-west coast, to become a bishop in the north of the country.

He was arrested in September 2018, following allegations from a nun that he regularly visited her convent in order to rape her. The bishop, who has temporarily stood down from ministry, has denied all the charges, telling reporters the accusations are "baseless and concocted".

Catholic nuns in Kerala, India, are calling for the arrest of the Rt Rev Franco Mulakkal, of Jalandhar, for alleged rape

In a letter, written by the nun to her superiors, she claimed the first rape had happened in May 2014 and the last in September 2016.

In January, the nuns appealed to the chief minister of Kerala to intervene on their behalf, after Church officials allegedly ordered them to leave the state, in an effort to clean up the mess.

Nuns have complained that they are exploited because they are often reliant upon priests and bishops for their accommodation and fear abandonment if they fight back against abusive clergy.

In Malawi, where HIV prevalence among adults up to the age of 64 is more than 10%, nuns are also alleged to have been targeted because they are regarded as "pure" and much less likely to be carrying the virus.

'Never again' pledge

In 2012, the Australian government announced a Royal Commission, which was charged with investigating institutional responses to child abuse. The organisations involved included residential care centres for young people, schools, sports, arts and other community groups, and the Church.

The commission concluded that 7% of Australia's Roman Catholic priests had allegedly abused children between 1950 and 2010.

In one religious order, the St John of God Brothers, 40% of its leaders were accused of abusing children.

Chrissie Foster, the mother of two children who were abused by priests in Melbourne, complained to the authorities. She told BBC News that instead of addressing her concerns, the family became the subject of a whispering campaign.

"They said that we were liars, that we were after money," she said.

"That's what they would say to parishioners. And parishioners would believe [it] because who would believe that a priest would rape a child? It was much easier to believe that lie than the truth that priests were sexually abusing children."

In August 2018, the Roman Catholic Church in Australia published its formal response to the Royal Commission.

Chrissie Foster is the mother of two children who were abused by priests in Melbourne, Australia

Archbishop the Most Reverend Mark Coleridge, president of the Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, said that "far too many" clergy, religious and lay people within the Church in Australia had "failed in their duty to protect and honour the dignity of all including and especially the most vulnerable, our children and our young people".

"With one voice, the bishops and the leaders of religious orders here this morning make the pledge, 'Never again,'" he said.

'Appalling abuse'

Last summer, Britain's Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse published a report on two of the most prestigious Roman Catholic schools in the UK: Ampleforth College, in North Yorkshire, and Downside School, in Somerset.

According to the report, the schools "prioritised the monks and their own reputations over the protection of children" and "appalling abuse was inflicted over decades on children as young as seven at Ampleforth and 11 at Downside".

The inquiry heard witness testimony from those who were forced into sexual acts, sometimes in the presence of fellow pupils.

In conclusion, the report found that "many perpetrators did not hide their sexual interests from the children".

"The blatant openness of these activities demonstrates there was a culture of acceptance of abusive behaviour," it said.

Following publication, Ampleforth said the "abbey and college wishes to repeat their heartfelt apology to all victims and survivors of abuse".

Downside expressed similar regret, saying: "The abbey and school fully acknowledges the serious failings and mistakes made in both protecting those within our care and responding to safeguarding concerns."

Downside Abbey and school apologised for failing its pupils

For an organisation that numbers more than 1.2 billion adherents and is present in virtually every country on Earth, the focus is now firmly fixed on Pope Francis.

When he was elected, in March 2013, the Pope was fully aware of the impact of clerical abuse scandals on the Church.

Within a year, in July 2014, he met six victims from three countries - two people each from Ireland, Britain and Germany. At a private Mass, with the six victims among the congregation, he offered an explicit apology.

"Before God and his people, I express my sorrow for the sins and grave crimes of clerical sexual abuse committed against you," Pope Francis said during his homily, published later by the Vatican.

A demonstration near the Vatican in support of the victims of paedophile priests

"And I humbly ask forgiveness. I beg your forgiveness, too, for the sins of omission on the part of Church leaders who did not respond adequately to reports of abuse made by family members, as well as by abuse victims themselves."

Soon after, Pope Francis added eight new members to the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors, from Africa, Oceania, Asia, and South America. But this body was soon hit by defections. The only two individuals on the commission who'd been victims of abuse, Marie Collins and Peter Saunders, resigned.

Marie Collins, who was molested by a priest when she was 13, wrote a letter saying that while the Pope may have wanted to address clerical abuse, the Vatican's bureaucracy kept obstructing proposals for change.

After the commission made a recommendation that all correspondence from victims and survivors should receive a response, she discovered that none had received replies.

"I find it impossible to listen to public statements about the deep concern in the Church for the care of those whose lives have been blighted by abuse," she wrote, "yet to watch privately as a congregation in the Vatican refuses to even acknowledge their letters."

She concluded with these words: "It is a reflection of how this whole abuse crisis in the Church has been handled: with fine words in public and contrary actions behind closed doors."

Clerical abuse survivor Marie Collins resigned from the Church's commission for the protection of minors

Pope Francis has decided to open the doors, convening an unprecedented summit to address the issue. But he's already tried to reduce expectations by warning the media, during the flight back to Rome from the United Arab Emirates, that a three-day conference represents only the beginning of a conversation.

Others have argued that he should simply issue an edict for the Church to follow. But implementing universal protocols is challenging because the Church exists in a range of cultures and judicial systems.

It's hard to imagine a more pressing challenge for the 82-year-old pontiff. His pontificate began with widespread enthusiasm for a man who chose pastoral appeal over pomp and ceremony, humility and compassion over the trappings of status.

But how it ends is likely to depend on the action he takes, and the protocols he implements, to deal with the scourge of abuse.

ruby Posted on February 20, 2019 13:54

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Pulwama attack: What are Modi's options?

A suicide bomber killed more than 40 paramilitary police in Indian-administered Kashmir last week in what was the deadliest attack on Indian forces in the region for decades. Pakistan denies any role in the attack by militant group Jaish-e-Mohammad, which is based on its soil.

With Indian general elections around the corner, the government is under pressure to respond, or at least demonstrate that such actions are not without consequences. Dhruva Jaishankar weighs in with the options before India - diplomatic, economic and military.

Political relations between India and Pakistan have been frozen for almost three years.

In his first two years in office after coming to power in 2014, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi invited his Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif to his inauguration, resumed talks between national security advisers, made an unscheduled visit to Lahore, and approved a much-criticised effort at collaborative counter-terrorism investigations.

The de facto border between India and Pakistan, also known as Line of Control

Pakistan responded to these efforts with firing across the Line of Control separating the two sides, insisting on meeting with Kashmiri separatists in India, and arresting and sentencing to death an alleged Indian spy.

Days after Mr Modi and Mr Sharif met in Lahore to launch a peace initiative, six soldiers were killed in an attack on an Indian air force base in Pathankot. Indian officials blamed the attack on the Pakistan-based Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), a militant group close to Pakistani intelligence.

By July 2016, Delhi's patience dried up and its position on a number of issues hardened.

Despite a new government in Pakistan under Imran Khan, a meeting between the two countries' foreign ministers at last year's UN General Assembly was cancelled. Normal diplomatic channels have, however, continued.

After the attack in Pulwama on Thursday, India has renewed its diplomatic efforts to make the case against what it says is Pakistan's state support for terrorism.

This builds upon many years of India condemning Pakistan in diplomatic pronouncements made with friendly countries. In India's joint statements with the US and others, they now name specific Pakistan-based terrorist groups such as JeM, Lashkar-e-Taiba and D-Company, a criminal syndicate led by the Pakistan-based Indian fugitive Dawood Ibrahim.

Mr Modi invited his Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif to his inauguration in 2014

India has also linked Pakistan to the primary security challenges of its partners: for example, Japan's concerns about North Korea.

Such moves have sensitised others to India's concerns about Pakistan, facilitated intelligence cooperation on Pakistan-based terrorist groups and encouraged crackdowns on their financing in many countries. Delhi's continued efforts also increase acceptability for any economic or military costs that India might impose at a later date.

The challenge facing India is that other countries, however sympathetic, will continue to see value in retaining their ties with Pakistan.

Although the US has become increasingly frustrated with Pakistan "tolerating and encouraging groups which use violence against Pakistan's neighbours", China remains Pakistan's closest ally, as it has for decades.

It has provided Pakistan with nuclear and missile technology and equipment, conventional arms and - under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor - billions of dollars of investment in strategic projects.

Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates too have continuing economic and security ties with Pakistan, although both have also been warming their relations with India over the past few years.

India has already begun to crackdown on suspected militants in Kashmir

The US and European Union continue to offer Pakistan preferential trading benefits, in some cases resulting in lower tariffs on imports compared to India.

Some EU officials have privately blamed the United Kingdom for Brussels' accommodative approach towards Pakistan - and have suggested that they may take sterner measures after Brexit.

The day after the Pulwama attack, India revoked Pakistan's Most Favoured Nation (MFN) trading status, raised customs duties to 200% and vowed to isolate it in the international community.

The absence of MFN will significantly raise customs duties on Pakistani exports to India, effectively resulting in unilateral Indian sanctions. Given that direct trade between the two countries is negligible, this move is largely symbolic.

In some ways, India has been implementing punitive measures against Pakistan for years. For instance, India has not played Pakistan in a bilateral Test cricket series since late 2007, in part because such a series would result in a financial windfall for the Pakistan Cricket Board.

Other, more severe, measures such as abrogating the 1960 Indus Waters Treatyhave been suggested.

Such a step would have significant costs, including eroding India's relations with other countries - China, Nepal, and Bangladesh - with which it has water-sharing arrangements.

India will also likely continue to apply diplomatic pressure to raise the costs of economic ties with Pakistan.

Pakistan PM Imran Khan has said Pakistan was not behind the Pulwama attack

It is expected to advocate adding Pakistan to the black list (which includes Iran and North Korea) of the Financial Action Task Force, an intergovernmental body that combats money laundering.

This would raise scrutiny on financial transactions involving Pakistan and effect its currency inflows, credit rating, stock market and banking sector.

However, China will likely resist such a move - it only dropped its opposition to Pakistan's "grey listing" last year in exchange for India's support for Beijing's vice presidency of the task force.

Other multilateral efforts may extend to leveraging India's position at various export control groups in which it recently acquired membership.

The biggest challenge for India is that Pakistan possesses a nuclear deterrent - including possibly one of the fastest growing nuclear arsenals - and a potent military.

For all the sabre-rattling in the Indian press and public, these are realities that the Indian leadership must keep in mind.

However, both Pakistan and India have explored options below the nuclear threshold.

In 1999, Pakistani forces made an incursion onto India's side of the de facto border (also know as the Line of Control) resulting in the limited Kargil conflict. On several occasions after that, India retaliated to Pakistani provocations with coordinated small-scale raids across the Line of Control. The 2016 attacks, in response to the Uri base attack, became widely known as "surgical strikes".

Other military options would be long-term in nature.

Indian efforts against cross-border infiltration from Pakistan have already benefited from new security technologies as well as intelligence partnerships with other countries.

Improvement in this area - such as buying unmanned aircraft and enhancing technical intelligence cooperation - would count as a major investment in countering cross-border terrorism from Pakistan.

Of course, these are only some of the many ways in which India might choose to respond. If recent history is any guide, we may witness something entirely unprecedented and unexpected.

ruby Posted on February 20, 2019 10:11

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Bernie Sanders announces second US presidential bid

US Senator Bernie Sanders says he will run again for president in 2020, making a second attempt to win the Democratic Party's nomination.

The 77-year-old Vermont senator became a progressive political star in 2016 although he lost his candidacy bid.

In an email to supporters, he said it was time to complete the "political revolution" they had started.

An outspoken critic of President Donald Trump, Mr Sanders has described him as a "pathological liar" and "racist".

Mr Sanders - an independent who caucuses with the Democrats - is one of the best-known names to join a crowded and diverse field of Democratic candidates, and early polls suggest he is far ahead.

His calls for universal government-provided healthcare, a $15 national minimum wage and free college education electrified young voters, raised millions of dollars in small donations and are now pillars of the party's left-wing.

Mr Sanders, who lost the 2016 Democratic primary to former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, said in his email: "Three years ago, when we talked about these and other ideas, we were told that they were 'radical' and 'extreme'.

"Together, you and I and our 2016 campaign began the political revolution. Now, it is time to complete that revolution and implement the vision that we fought for."


After building a grass-roots political movement that roiled the Democratic Party in 2016, Bernie Sanders is making another run at the prize.

This time, he won't be the rumpled underdog. He'll start the race near the front of the pack - with advantages in small-donor fundraising, name recognition and a 50-state organisation of loyalists.

His front-runner status will come with a price, however. Unlike 2016, when Hillary Clinton largely avoided confronting the Vermont senator for fear of alienating his supporters, his opponents will have no such reluctance this time.

In 2016, the self-proclaimed "Democratic socialist" staked out a progressive agenda in contrast with Ms Clinton's pragmatic centrism. Now, in part because of Mr Sanders' efforts, the party has moved left on issues like healthcare, education and income inequality. His message is no longer unique.

The 77-year-old senator will keep his devoted base, but will some former supporters opt for a fresh face? That could lead to conflict with those who believe a Bernie "revolution" is the only way forward, inflaming Democratic wounds not fully healed from the last campaign.

In a crowded field, Mr Sanders has a realistic shot - but it could be a bumpy ride.

Elizabeth Warren, Kirsten Gillibrand, Kamala Harris, John Delaney and Julian Castro are among those who have also announced their intention to run in the Democratic primary in 2020, the first time more than one woman has competed.

If Mr Sanders is successful in his bid, he will become the oldest presidential candidate in US history.

In his email, which lays out a series of policy issues, Mr Sanders also says: "You know as well as I do that we are living in a pivotal and dangerous moment in American history.

"We are running against a president who is a pathological liar, a fraud, a racist, a sexist, a xenophobe and someone who is undermining American democracy as he leads us in an authoritarian direction."

Mr Sanders speaks at a Committee on Racial Equality Sit-In in 1962

Mr Sanders is the longest-serving independent in congressional history, but competes for the Democratic nomination as he says standing as a third-party candidate would diminish his chances of winning the presidency.

He attended the University of Chicago, and in the 1960s and 1970s participated in antiwar and civil rights activism, like the 1963 March on Washington.

He was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1990, the first independent to achieve such a feat in 40 years. He served there until he ran for and won a seat in the Senate in 2007.

Mr Sanders entered the race for the 2016 Democratic nomination as a long-shot candidate but emerged as a surprise star during a series of televised debates.

He labels himself a Democratic socialist, which he has defined as someone who seeks to "create an economy that works for all, not just the very wealthy".

Mr Sanders also has a diplomacy-first attitude towards foreign policy and voted against the US invasion of Iraq in 2002.

Mr Sanders attracted a large amount of younger voters during his 2016 campaign

He became Mrs Clinton's closest rival, but she ultimately won the nomination before losing the presidential election to Mr Trump.

In January, Mr Sanders apologised to female staff members on his 2016 campaign after allegations of harassment against senior aides emerged.

Several aides complained of a "predatory culture" in his campaign and alleged that senior male staff had mistreated younger workers.

ruby Posted on February 19, 2019 14:20

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Pulwama attack: Pakistan warns India against military action

Pakistan has warned it will retaliate if India takes military action against it after a militant attack on Indian forces in Indian-administered Kashmir.

Prime Minister Imran Khan went on television to call on India to provide evidence to support its claims that Pakistan was involved.

More than 40 members of India's security forces died in Thursday's suicide bombing on their convoy.

Pakistan-based militant group Jaish-e-Mohammad said it was behind it.

The attack has raised tensions between India and Pakistan, which have fought two wars and a limited conflict in the region and are both nuclear powers.

In his first comments addressing the attack, he said India should "stop blaming Pakistan without any proof or evidence" and urged Indian authorities to share any proof they might have about Pakistani involvement.

"If you think that you will launch any kind of attack on Pakistan, Pakistan will not just think about retaliation, Pakistan will retaliate," he said, adding that only dialogue could help solve issues in Kashmir.

India has long accused Pakistan of backing militant separatists in Indian-administered Kashmir.

Mr Khan, who took office last year, said his government was ready to co-operate with India in investigating the attack and asked what benefit Pakistan would derive from the attack at a time when the country was "going towards stability".

The prime minister said he had not addressed the attack earlier because of Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's high-profile visit to Pakistan on Sunday and Monday.

The suicide bomber has been identified as a young man from the region. Correspondents say a significant number of young Kashmiris have joined militant groups in recent years.

Earlier, India's top military commander in Kashmir, Lt Gen KJS Dhillon, accused Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) spy agency of "controlling" the attack with Jaish-e-Mohammad commanders, but he provided no evidence.

"I'd request all the mothers in Kashmir to please request their sons who have joined terrorism to surrender and get back to the mainstream," he said. "Otherwise anyone who has picked up the gun will be killed."

On Monday, India said it had killed three members of Jaish-e-Mohammad in a gunfight that also left four Indian soldiers, a policeman and a civilian dead.

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Both India and Pakistan claim all of Muslim-majority Kashmir, but control only parts of it.

Thursday's bombing was the deadliest attack on Indian forces in the region for decades.

Indian mourners held a candle light vigil in Siliguri, West Bengal

So far India has focused on retaliation by economic and diplomatic means. It has revoked Pakistan's Most Favoured Nation trading status and raised customs duties to 200%.

Both countries have recalled top diplomats.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who is facing an election later this year, has vowed a strong response and says he will give the military free rein.

The last time an attack on Indian forces close to this magnitude occurred in Kashmir was in 2016, when 19 soldiers were killed at a base. In response to that, India carried out "surgical strikes" which involved Indian soldiers crossing the de facto border to hit Pakistani posts.

Why has 2018 seen a spike in violence in Indian-administered Kashmir?

This time heavy snow in the region could make that kind of limited ground response impossible, analysts say. But there are fears that going further - with air strikes, for example - could lead to Pakistani retaliation and a significant escalation.

ruby Posted on February 19, 2019 11:20

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Could hackers 'brainjack' your memories in future?

Imagine being able to scroll through your memories like an Instagram feed, reliving with vivid details your favourite life moments and backing up the dearest ones.

Now imagine a dystopian version of the same future in which hackers hijack these memories and threaten to erase them if you don't pay a ransom.

It might sound far-fetched, but this scenario could be closer than you think.

Advances in the field of neurotechnology have brought us closer to boosting and enhancing our memories, and in a few decades we could also be able to manipulate, decode and re-write them.

The technologies likely to underpin these developments are brain implants which are quickly becoming a common tool for neurosurgeons.

They deliver deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat a wide array of conditions, such as tremors, Parkinson's, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), in around 150,000 people worldwide. They even show the potential to control diabetes and tackle obesity.

Advances in the field of neurotechnology promise to bring better understanding of our brains

The technology is also increasingly being investigated for treating depression, dementia, Tourette's syndrome and other psychiatric conditions.

And, though still in its early stages, researchers are exploring how to treat memory disorders such as those caused by traumatic events.

The US Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has a programme to develop and test a "wireless, fully implantable neural interface" to help restore memory loss in soldiers affected by traumatic brain injury.

"I wouldn't be at all surprised if there is a commercially available memory implant within the next 10 years or so - we are talking about this kind of timeframe," says Laurie Pycroft, a researcher with the Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences at the University of Oxford.

In 20 years' time, the technology may evolve enough to allow us to capture the signals that build our memories, boost them, and return them to the brain.

By the middle of the century, we may have even more extensive control, with the ability to manipulate memories.

But the consequences of control falling into the wrong hands could be "very grave", says Mr Pycroft.

Imagine a hacker has broken into the neurostimulator of a patient with Parkinson's disease and is tampering with the settings. They could influence his or her thoughts and behaviour, or even cause temporary paralysis.

A hacker could also threaten to erase or overwrite someone's memories if money is not paid to them - perhaps via the dark web.

Hackers could either target high-profile individuals or mass target groups of individuals

If scientists successfully decode the neural signals of our memories, then the scenarios are infinite. Think of the valuable intelligence foreign hackers could collect by breaking into the servers of the Washington DC veterans' hospital, for example.

In a 2012 experiment, researchers from the University of Oxford and University of California, Berkeley managed to figure out information such as bank cards and PIN numbers just by observing the brainwaves of people wearing a popular gaming headset.

"Brainjacking and malicious memory alteration pose a variety of challenges to security - some quite novel or unique," says Dmitry Galov, a researcher at the cyber-security company Kaspersky Lab.

Kaspersky and University of Oxford researchers have collaborated on a project to map the potential threats and means of attack concerning these emerging technologies.

"Even at today's level of development - which is more advanced than many people realise - there is a clear tension between patient safety and patient security," says their report, The Memory Market: Preparing for a future where cyberthreats target your past.

It is not impossible to imagine future authoritarian governments trying to rewrite history by interfering with people's memories, and even uploading new memories, the report says.

Carson Martinez from the Future of Privacy Forum is sceptical about memory manipulation

"If we accept that this technology will exist, we could be able to change people's behaviour. If they are behaving in a way that we don't want them to, we can stop them by stimulating the part of the brain that sparks bad emotions," Mr Galov tells the BBC.

Carson Martinez, health policy fellow at the Future of Privacy Forum, says: "It is not unimaginable to think that memory-enhancing brain implants may become a reality in the future. Memory modification? That sounds more like speculation than fact."

But she admits: "While the threats of brainjacking may not be imminent, it is important that we consider them and work to prevent their materialisation."

Even the idea of brainjacking "could chill patient trust in medical devices that are connected to a network", she warns.

Hacking into connected medical devices is not a new threat. In 2017, US authorities recalled 465,000 pacemakers after considering them vulnerable to cyber-security attacks.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) said ill-intentioned people could tamper with the devices, changing the pace of someone's heartbeat or draining the batteries, with the risk of death in either scenario.

Doctors and IT manufacturers will need to collaborate to stay up-to-date with cyber-security issues, according to Galov and Pycroft

No harm was done, but the FDA said: "As medical devices become increasingly interconnected via the internet, hospital networks, other medical devices, and smartphones, there is an increased risk of exploitation of cyber-security vulnerabilities, some of which could affect how a medical device operates."

This is a problem for many medical areas and Kaspersky believes that, in the future, more devices will be connected and remotely monitored by machine. Doctors will only be called in to take over in situations of emergency.

Fortunately, reinforcing cyber-security early in the design and planning of the devices can mitigate most of the risks.

"Encryption, identity and access management, patching and updating the security of these devices, will all be vital to keeping these devices secure and maintaining patient trust in them," says Ms Martinez.

Clinicians and patients need to be educated on how to take precautions, thinks Mr Galov - setting strong passwords will be key.

Humans represent "one of the greatest vulnerabilities" because we can't ask doctors to become cyber-security experts, and "any system is only as secure as its weakest part".

Mr Pycroft says that in the future, brain implants will be more complex and more widely used to treat a broader range of conditions.

But he gives a stark warning.

"The confluence of these factors is likely to make it easier and more attractive for attackers to try to interfere with people's implants," he says.

"If we don't develop solutions for that first generation of implants, then the second and third generations will still be insecure - but the implants will be so much more powerful that the attackers will have the advantage."

ruby Posted on February 19, 2019 10:49

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Gilets jaunes: How much anti-Semitism is beneath the yellow vests?

The French far-right leader, Marine Le Pen, has said she won't join other political parties in a march against anti-Semitism on Tuesday, accusing France's leaders of doing nothing to tackle Islamist networks in France and saying she will mark the occasion separately.

It comes days after a prominent French philosopher, Alain Finkielkraut, was verbally attacked for being Jewish as he walked past the weekly gilets jaunes (yellow vests) protests in Paris.

A small group of protesters shouted a barrage of abuse at him as he passed by the demonstration on his way home from lunch on Saturday, calling him a "dirty Zionist" and telling him to "go back to Tel Aviv".

"I felt an absolute hatred," Mr Finkielkraut told one French newspaper later that night. "If the police hadn't been there, I would have been frightened."

A few days before that, official data suggested there had been a 74% rise in anti-Semitic attacks in France last year.Now many here are questioning whether the gilets jaunes movement is providing a new kind of forum for these extremist views, and how central those attitudes are to the movement.

"It's very serious," says Vincent Duclert, a specialist in anti-Semitism in France at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Science - one of France's most prestigious colleges.

"The gilets jaunes are not an anti-Semitic movement, but alongside the demonstration each Saturday there's a lot of anti-Semitic expression by groups of the extreme right or extreme left."

'Yellow-vests' pelt police van with stones

"You can be on the streets demonstrating every Saturday, shouting your slogans against the Jews," says Jean-Yves Camus, an expert in French political extremism.

"And as there's no leadership in the movement and no stewarding of the demonstrations, you can be free to do it. I'm afraid there will be more attacks, because the self-proclaimed leaders simply do not seem to care that much."

Jason Herbert, a spokesman for the movement, says the incident on Saturday is a scandal, but not representative of the gilets jaunes as a whole.

"It's the inherent weakness of a movement that lets the people speak," he explained. "Everyone can come and give his opinion - and some opinions are despicable and illegal. To think someone is inferior because of his or her origins is just not acceptable, and it's completely unrelated to our demands. Amongst our demands, I've never heard 'we want fewer Jews'."

Some protesters have carried signs denouncing racism and discrimination

The gilets jaunes began life as a protest against fuel tax rises, but have broadened into a loose confederation of different interest groups with no official hierarchy or leadership. Over the past three months, as the movement has appeared more radical, its wider support has dipped.

Vincent Duclert believes that the movement does bear some responsibility for the extremist abuse in its midst, because the protest's violence - towards the police, state institutions and public property - encourages anti-Semitism by encouraging "transgression".

And, he says, it's possible that the gilets jaunes are also offering "a new space for different kinds of anti-Semitism to come together: from the extreme right and extreme left, but also from radical Islamist or anti-Zionist groups, and some types of social conservatives".

There are signs over the past year, he says, that levels of anti-Semitism have risen within these different groups, because of changes at home, across Europe and in the Middle East. And that French public opinion has been too tolerant of this.

Marine Le Pen is among those trying to court the support of the protesters

Politicians here have been quick to condemn Saturday's attack on Alain Finkielkraut. President Macron tweeted that it was "the absolute negation of what we are and what makes us a great nation".

Others tried to blame it on their political rivals.

A member of France's centre-right opposition, Geoffrey Didier, told reporters that anti-Semitism was growing "because radical Islamism is growing in France", while Marine Le Pen said it illustrated "how the anti-Semite far-left is trying to infiltrate the gilets jaunes movement".

Both Ms Le Pen's party and that of her far-left rival, Jean Luc Melenchon, have been trying to win the support of the gilets jaunes ahead of European elections in May.

Jean-Yves Camus believes last week's attack will help turn public opinion against the movement, saying it has become "a hotbed of radical activity from both sides of the political spectrum and the French do not want that".

ruby Posted on February 19, 2019 10:27

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'Crossing the Channel by boat is risky - we came by lorry'

Azis Hanna, from Iraq, was about to pay smugglers to get his family across the English Channel in an inflatable boat. But when his friends nearly died he thought again, says the BBC's Sue Mitchell.

Azis Hanna, his wife Maryam, and their five-year-old daughter, Chia, arrived in Dunkirk in October and made more than 20 attempts to reach the UK before finally succeeding last weekend, in the back of a lorry.

For a while he had considered making the trip in an inflatable rubber boat. The smugglers made it sound quite safe, promising that one of them would travel in the boat with the migrants for 14 miles.

"When you go to English water they then call the police, the police come to help take you to England. Every smuggler says like this," Azis says.

At this point the smugglers themselves would travel back to France in an accompanying boat, the story went.

But the experiences of two friends from the Dunkirk camp filled Azis with horror.

Iranian Christians Bahador and Shoku, together with their children Maryam and Brinyamin, were driven to a beach south of the ferry port one winter morning and climbed into a small boat with six others.

About 15 minutes after setting off, it capsized - and there were no life jackets. Seven-year-old Maryam says she was one of the only ones who could swim.

"This water was so cold, so much cold. My feet were going cold, it made me want to die," she says. "I saw my brother, but couldn't get him."

Fortunately Bahador was able to lift them on top of the upturned boat.

"The sea was going up and down so much," Maryam says. "It was strong and dark. My mum was crying and praying and others were shouting for help. They said we were going to die."

Eventually they were rescued but both children had to be treated in hospital for hypothermia.

Bahador and his children, Brinyamin and Maryam

The other story that put Azis off the boat crossing involved his friend Solomon, and Solomon's partner, Siree, both also Iranian Christians.

They had already been at sea for hours when their engine failed. As efforts were made to restart it, the boat began to fill with a mixture of salt water and fuel - which burned their skin.

"Our skin was burning, just so painful. We were just scared. Somebody was crying, someone was praying. The boat was drifting," Solomon says.

"We were asking God, 'Why, what is happening to us? Why?' Me too, I ask God, 'Why God you take me from Iran to this sea to die here? Nobody knows where I am.' Three hours after our engine went off we were still at sea."

It was dark when a small boat - British, Solomon thinks - picked them up and transferred them to a French vessel, and they were taken to a hospital in France.

Azis on the lorry that brought him to the UK

After hearing these stories, Azis told smugglers in Dunkirk that he wanted to make the journey by lorry. His mother borrowed £10,000, using her house as security, and paid the money to the smugglers' associates in Iraq. Then a long series of failed attempts began.

Sometimes they were found by sniffer dogs at the French ports. On other occasions, the lorries set off in the wrong direction, heading into France towards Spain or Romania. On one occasion they climbed into a refrigerated lorry, but Chia could not stand the cold and started feeling unwell.

Azis says the French police took a relaxed attitude if they caught him, often wishing him better luck next time.

His successful crossing took place on Saturday. They were called by the smugglers during the day and travelled by bus from Dunkirk to a lorry park in Belgium. There they were put in the back of a Romanian lorry with another family and entered the UK via the Eurotunnel. They stayed hidden until Northampton, when they created a disturbance and the surprised driver let them out.

DCI Neil Cripps of the South East Regional Organised Crime Unit says investigators sometimes have to allow unsafe boats to set off in order to gather evidence against the smugglers.

"To get our best evidence and to do a long-term permanent disruption to this crime route, we have to balance and juggle an element of risk to people."

An Iraqi Kurd smuggler operating in northern France, using the name Johno, says he spent four years in jail for human trafficking - then returned to the illegal business after his release.

They hid in woods until one of Azis's cousins, who is already living in the UK, could pick them up. Hours later, Azis reported to a police station to start his claim for asylum.

Azis says life in Iraq had become dangerous for him because of an earlier attempt to reach the UK as a teenager, 15 years ago. On that occasion his travelling companion had died, as he jumped from a slowly moving lorry. Years later the man's uncle contacted Azis out of the blue, blaming him for the tragedy, he says, and threatening to kill his daughter if he failed to pay £50,000 in compensation.

Azis did not think of staying in France, because he speaks English, has relatives in the UK, and because the UK government helps refugees, he says. "They give houses and everything," he says. "In France it isn't like that. They do help, but nothing like that."

He adds: "I am overjoyed and thank God for this. England is like heaven to me. No-one can hurt us here and we can sleep properly for the first time in months. My daughter can start school and get an education. She will be very clever and maybe even a doctor."

British volunteer Rob Lawrie with Bahador's daughter, Maryam, in Dunkirk

DCI Neil Cripps of the South East Regional Organised Crime Unit says increased vigilance at ferry ports, and the increased risk of getting caught when travelling by lorry, is making sea crossings more attractive for migrants.

"I am predicting, probably in the spring when the weather becomes calmer, that dinghies will start to increase," he says.

Despite his family's disastrous experience, Azis's friend, Bahador, is one of those thinking of attempting the boat crossing again.

"We want to get away from here," he says.

"And we cannot come back to Iran because I am a Christian and would definitely die. The sea is dangerous, but Iran is more dangerous."

More than 3,000 Nigerian migrants who failed to reach Europe, have been flown home by the International Organization for Migration. Many sold everything to make the trip and aren't sure how to face their families.

ruby Posted on February 19, 2019 10:16

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India-Pakistan crisis: Saudi Arabia aims to de-escalate tensions

Saudi Arabia has said it will work to de-escalate tensions between India and Pakistan, ahead of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's arrival in Delhi.

The prince, known as MBS, is on a tour of Asia and has just visited Pakistan.

Hostilities between Delhi and Islamabad flared last week, after a suicide bombing in the India-administered part of Kashmir killed at least 40 paramilitary police.

A Pakistan-based militant group, Jaish-e-Mohammad, said it was behind it.

Pakistan denies any role in the bombing, but India has accused the state of being complicit and vowed to isolate its neighbour internationally.

Both India and Pakistan claim all of Muslim-majority Kashmir, but control only parts of it.

Speaking on Monday, Saudi Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir said the Arab state's objective was to "try to de-escalate tensions between the two countries, neighbouring countries, and to see if there is a path forward to resolving those differences peacefully".

Delhi has imposed a swathe of economic measures on Islamabad, including revoking Most Favoured Nation trading status and raising customs duty to 200%.

The attack caused mourning but also anger against Pakistan

On Tuesday, Pakistan's foreign minister on Tuesday appealed to the UN to help with the hostilities.

"It is with a sense of urgency that I draw your attention to the deteriorating security situation in our region resulting from the threat of use of force against Pakistan by India," Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi wrote to Secretary General Antonio Guterres, adding that the UN "must step in to defuse tensions".

Pakistan is in the midst of a financial crisis, and the crown prince's visit saw Saudi Arabia pledge much-needed investment deals worth $20bn (£15.5bn).

With only $8bn left in foreign reserves, Prime Minister Imran Khan has been seeking help from friendly countries in order to cut the size of the bailout package his country is likely to need from the International Monetary Fund, under very strict conditions.

The country is seeking its 13th bailout since the late 1980s, and Saudi Arabia has already provided a $6bn loan.

After a personal plea to the Crown Prince, Saudi Arabia also said it would release some 2,107 Pakistani prisoners in a gesture to foster ties.

The inmates are mostly migrant workers who are jailed with little or no legal recourse - a sensitive issue between Islamabad and Riyadh.

Huge numbers of Pakistani workers labour on construction sites in the Middle East, or work as domestic helpers. The remittances they send back home are vital for Pakistan's economy.

Islamabad has said it will confer its highest civilian honour, the Order of Pakistan, on Prince Mohammed bin Salman.

It comes despite wider international condemnation of Saudi Arabia's role in the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, who was killed and dismembered in the kingdom's Turkish consulate last year.

Saudi Arabia 'is Pakistan's friend in need'

ruby Posted on February 19, 2019 10:09

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Islamic State group: Could it rebound from caliphate defeat?

The jihadist terror group's self-proclaimed "caliphate", which once ruled over nearly eight million people across Syria and Iraq, has been all but eliminated.

The temptation for triumphalism in Western capitals is overwhelming. It has taken four and a half years of relentless military pressure by a 79-nation coalition to get to this point. It has cost billions of dollars and thousands of lives, many of them civilian.

But people who have access to secret intelligence on the Islamic State (IS) group's activities and intentions are calling for caution.

At the recent Munich Security Conference, Alex Younger, the chief of Britain's secret intelligence service (MI6) - an organisation that was frankly caught completely off-balance by IS's lightning advances in 2014 - said this:

"The military defeat of the 'caliphate' does not represent the end of the terrorist threat. We see it therefore morphing, spreading out... within Syria but also externally... This is the traditional shape of a terrorist organisation."

Speaking at the same event, German Defence Minister Ursula von der Leyen assessed that IS was currently going deeper underground and building networks with other terrorist groups.

Gen Joseph Votel, who runs US Central Command, has warned that, although the IS network is dispersed, pressure must be maintained or its components will have "the capability of coming back together if we don't".

IS was driven out of Raqqa, the de facto capital of its "caliphate", in October 2017

Estimates of the number of IS fighters who have dispersed across the Syria-Iraq arena range from 20,000 to 30,000, many of whom will be unwilling to return to their home countries for fear of prosecution.

There are also small concentrations of fanatical IS-linked militants in Libya, Egypt, West Africa, Afghanistan and the southern Philippines. Already in Iraq there is evidence of IS militants mounting increasingly bold attacks in the northern provinces.

So far, so grim. But let's have a look at what originally propelled IS to its early victories and lightning conquests in 2013/14 and assess whether it could do so again.

IS grew out of al-Qaeda in Iraq, an insurgent group formed from an alliance of convenience between disgruntled and out-of-work Iraqi military and intelligence officers with idealistic jihadists flooding in from around the Arab world and elsewhere.

Last September the BBC spoke to two British extremists who have lived and fought in Syria for years

The calling card of Al-Qaeda in Iraq was what it said was a religious duty by all Muslims to come and resist the US occupation of Iraq.

But then its brutality and intolerance (e.g. chopping off the fingers of anyone caught smoking cigarettes) so alienated the Iraqi tribes that they sided with the government and drove al-Qaeda out into the wilderness.

Iraq's Shia-led government then squandered this gain by embarking on a systematic programme of discrimination against Sunni Muslims.

By the summer of 2014 they felt so disenfranchised that IS (a Sunni extremist movement) was able to practically walk into Iraq's second city of Mosul unopposed.

Couple this with a weak, demoralised Iraqi military, whose senior officers deserted their own troops ahead of the IS advance, and you had all the ingredients of an IS takeover of a third of Iraq.

Next door in Syria, with the civil war still raging, there was enough chaos and confusion for IS - as the most ruthless and ideological of all insurgent groups - to carve out large areas of control.

So could this happen again? Yes, and no.

It is highly unlikely that a physical "caliphate" of any size would be allowed to be reconstituted. Yet many of the factors that fuelled IS's early success are still there.

Iraq is awash with sectarian Shia militias, some funded, trained and armed by Iran. There are disturbing reports of Sunni villagers being dragged from their homes and - in some cases - falsely accused of supporting IS.

In some places, Shia revenge squads stalk the streets at night with impunity.

Iraq desperately needs a national reconciliation process and inclusive government if it is to avoid a regenerated IS 2.0. Yet there is little sign of this happening in practice.

In Syria, the factor that sparked that country's catastrophic civil war now sits victorious in his palace in Damascus.

President Bashar al-Assad, saved from defeat by his Russian and Iranian allies, appears more secure than ever.

Most Syrians are now too exhausted to oppose him. But the atrocities committed by his regime, on an industrial scale, will continue to propel some towards armed resistance, and IS will be looking for ways back into the Syrian battle space.

Further afield and globally, wherever there is a perception of bad governance, of disenfranchisement, of religious persecution against Muslims or where large bodies of alienated young men feel their lives lack purpose, there will always be opportunities for recruiters to the "cult" of IS.

Its caliphate is over - its dangerously infectious ideology is not.

ruby Posted on February 19, 2019 10:03

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Viewpoint: Should Britain apologise for Amritsar massacre?

Hundreds of Indians attending a public meeting were shot dead by British troops in the northern Indian city of Amritsar in 1919. Historian Kim Wagner sifts fact from fiction as the UK House of Lords prepares to debate the massacre, including if Britain should apologise.

On 13 April 1919, Sergeant WJ Anderson witnessed first-hand the brutal massacre of hundreds of Indian civilians at Jallianwala Bagh, a public garden in Amritsar city.

"When fire was opened the whole crowd seemed to sink to the ground, a whole flutter of white garments, with however a spreading out towards the main gateway, and some individuals could be seen climbing the high wall," Anderson later recalled.

"There was little movement, except for the climbers. The gateway would soon be jammed. I saw no sign of a rush towards the troops."

He had served as the bodyguard of Brigadier General RH Dyer, who had rushed to Amritsar a few days earlier to quell what he believed to be a major uprising.

The crowd of more than 20,000 people, however, were not armed rebels. They were local residents and villagers from the surrounding countryside who had come to listen to political speeches or simply to spend a few hours in the gardens.

The crowd comprised Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs. Most were men and young boys, including some infants; only a few women were present.

Brigadier General Dyer rushed to Amritsar to quell what he believed to be a major uprising

When Gen Dyer ordered his troops to cease firing, Jallianwala Bagh resembled a battlefield strewn with corpses. Between 500 and 600 people were killed, and probably three times as many wounded. The exact numbers will never be known for certain but the official death count, reached months later, was just 379.

In recent years, much of the public debate has focused on calls for a formal British apology - the demand has been led by, among others, Indian politician and author Shashi Tharoor.

Queen Elizabeth II visited the memorial at Jallianwala Bagh in 1997 and then Prime Minister David Cameron visited in 2013 - both showed their respect yet carefully avoided making an actual apology.

In December 2017, the Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan, nevertheless urged the British government to make just such a gesture during his own visit to Amritsar.

"I am clear that the government should now apologise, especially as we reach the centenary of the massacre. This is about properly acknowledging what happened here and giving the people of Amritsar and India the closure they need through a formal apology," he said.

On his 2013 visit, Cameron avoided making an actual apology but said the massacre was "deeply shameful"

Exactly what happened at Jallianwala Bagh, however, remains unclear, and a century later, the actual circumstances of the massacre are still shrouded in myth and misconceptions.

There are, for instance, people, often with a nostalgic attachment to the Empire, who still insist that Gen Dyer only opened fire as a final resort when the crowd ignored his warning to disperse - even though the general himself was quite clear that he gave no such warning.

Similarly, the idea that the shooting was necessary and prevented much worse violence conveniently ignores the fact that Indian riots in April 1919 were in each and every case precipitated by British actions.Factual inaccuracies are also to be found at the Jallianwala Bagh memorial today. Among other things, a sign claims that 120 bodies of the victims of the massacre were recovered from what has become known as the Martyrs' Well. It's believed that many people jumped into the well to escape the bullets.

But there is no evidence for this story, which appears to be based on a mix-up with the infamous well at Kanpur city, where the bodies of British women and children were disposed after a massacre in 1857.

Visual depictions of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre also show machine guns being used, when the historical record is quite clear that the shooting was carried out by 50 Gurkha and Baluchi troops armed with rifles.

Gen Dyer also did not orchestrate the massacre, and deliberately trap the crowd inside the gardens, as some popular accounts have it.

The crowd were not armed rebels but local residents and villagers

In fact, it was British panic and misreading of the political turmoil in India that was at the root of the violence.

While Indian nationalists were looking forward to political reforms and greater self-determination after the end of World War One, the British were still haunted by the spectre of the 1857 "mutiny", an uprising that is often referred to as India's first war of independence.

So, when riots broke out in Amritsar on 10 April - and five Europeans and dozens of Indians were killed - the authorities responded with immediate and indiscriminate force. Three days later, Gen Dyer entered what he mistakenly perceived to be a war zone.

Where popular depictions show a peaceful crowd of locals quietly listening to a political speech, Gen Dyer instead perceived a defiant and murderous mob, which had only days before run rampant through Amritsar. When he ordered his troops to open fire, it was an act of fear, spurred on by a disastrously flawed threat assessment.

None of this exonerates Gen Dyer or detracts from the sheer brutality of the massacre - nor does it justify the subsequent torture and humiliation of Indians under martial law. The indisputable violence of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre hardly requires any embellishment. Nevertheless, facts matter if we are to pay our respect to those who died rather than simply perpetuate politically convenient fiction. And to understand is not the same as to condone.

There are bullet marks on a wall in the garden

Apologies and centenaries, which are essentially about the present rather than the past, are rarely conducive to an honest and nuanced reckoning with history.

An apology from a British government in the throes of Brexit, at the moment, seems highly unlikely. It it indeed doubtful whether an official acknowledgement of the massacre would be construed as more than an act of political expediency.

The question thus remains whether an apology without a genuine understanding of the past can ever provide the "closure" that so many seek.

ruby Posted on February 19, 2019 09:45

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UK and French tourists missing in Australia beach search

A British man and a French man have gone missing while backpacking in Australia, sparking a police search.

The alarm was raised when passersby found items belonging to Hugo Palmer and Erwan Ferrieux, both 20, on a beach north of Sydney on Monday, authorities said.

Police searched the location, Shelly Beach, and discovered the pair's rental car nearby.

Other personal items, including travel documents, were found in the vehicle.

Police began ground and water searches on Monday, but they have not found any sign of the men.

The pair had arrived in the region on Sunday, said the local Port Macquarie News, which reported that Mr Palmer was from East Sussex.

Police Insp Michael Aldridge said that recent surf conditions had been rough.

"From the information that we have received, they were travelling down the east coast, stopping at various locations along the way," he told the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

A British High Commission spokeswoman said: "Our staff are in contact with police in Australia and the UK following reports of a missing British man at Shelly Beach, New South Wales."

Police said they had contacted French consular officials.

Shelly Beach is a popular surfing and walking site in Port Macquarie, located about 380km (250 miles) north of Sydney.

ruby Posted on February 19, 2019 09:38

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Cheryl Grimmer: Murder charge in toddler's 1970 disappearance dropped

Australian prosecutors have dropped their case against a man who had been accused of murdering a UK-born toddler almost 50 years ago.

The disappearance of three-year-old Cheryl Grimmer from a New South Wales beach in 1970 is one of Australia's longest-running mysteries.

A man was arrested in 2017, and he later pleaded not guilty to murder.

On Friday, a judge ruled that a key part of the prosecution case could not be used as evidence in a trial.

It concerned statements made by the man during a police interview in 1971, when he was aged 17.

The Supreme Court of New South Wales found that the evidence could not be heard because the teenager had not had an adult representative present during the interview.

Justice Robert Allan Hulme said: "The Crown accepts that its case cannot succeed without it."

Cheryl went missing from a shower block on 12 January, 1970, in Wollongong, a city 70km (44 miles) south of Sydney, shortly after her family moved to Australia from Bristol.

It sparked a massive search at the time, but no trace of the girl was ever found.

Police conduct a search days after Cheryl's disappearance

On Friday Cheryl's brother, Ricki Nash, said the family was devastated by the latest development and felt let down by police.

"We're just a bit numb, a bit shocked… no words can describe how I feel at the moment," he said outside the court.

Over the years, the family had expressed frustration at the lack of progress in the case.

Another of her brothers, Stephen Grimmer, said in 2016: "My mum and dad have passed on now not knowing, and we want to know too before we pass on."

In explaining his decision, Justice Hulme acknowledged that the man had made a written statement and engaged in a "walk-through style interview" with police in 1971.

Unlike now, minors were not legally required to be accompanied by an adult when giving such statements.

Cheryl with her late father, Vince Grimmer

However, Justice Hulme ruled that the man's police interview "should be excluded on the basis of unfairness".

He also noted testimony from psychologists who had reviewed the case for the trial.

They found that the man had "low intellect" and would have been "more vulnerable to influence" at the time, the judge said.

The man's trial had been due to begin in May.

ruby Posted on February 18, 2019 15:59

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Facebook needs regulation as Zuckerberg 'fails' - UK MPs

Facebook needs far stricter regulation, with tough and urgent action necessary to end the spread of disinformation on its platform, MPs have said.

A Commons committee has concluded that the firm's founder Mark Zuckerberg failed to show "leadership or personal responsibility" over fake news.

Untrue stories from foreign powers were risking the UK's democracy, they said.

Facebook welcomed the digital select committee's report and said it would be open to "meaningful regulation".

MPs said that what was needed to deal with the proliferation of disinformation online and the misuse of personal data was a "radical shift in the balance of power between social media platforms and the people".

The inquiry into fake news, which lasted more than a year, was conducted by the Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee, with much of the evidence focusing on the business practices of Facebook before and after the Cambridge Analytica scandal.

Cambridge Analytica was a political advertising firm that had access to the data of millions of users, some of which was allegedly used to psychologically profile US voters. The data was acquired via a personality quiz.

How such data, particularly in terms of political campaigning, was shared by Facebook was at the heart of the inquiry, alongside the effects of fake news.

"Democracy is at risk from the malicious and relentless targeting of citizens with disinformation and personalised 'dark adverts' from unidentifiable sources, delivered through the major social media platforms we use every day," concluded the report.

"The big tech companies are failing in the duty of care they owe to their users to act against harmful content, and to respect their data privacy rights."

  • a compulsory code of ethics for tech companies, overseen by an independent regulator
  • the regulator to be given powers to launch legal action if companies breach the code
  • the government to reform current electoral laws and rules on overseas involvement in UK elections
  • social media companies to be forced to take down known sources of harmful content, including proven sources of disinformation
  • tech companies operating in the UK to be taxed to help fund the work for the Information Commissioner's Office and any new regulator set up to oversee them.

In response, Facebook said: "We share the committee's concerns about false news and election integrity and are pleased to have made a significant contribution to their investigation over the past 18 months, answering more than 700 questions and with four of our most senior executives giving evidence.

"We are open to meaningful regulation and support the committee's recommendation for electoral law reform. But we're not waiting. We have already made substantial changes so that every political ad on Facebook has to be authorised, state who is paying for it and then is stored in a searchable archive for seven years. No other channel for political advertising is as transparent and offers the tools that we do."

MPs made no secret of the fact that they found it difficult dealing with Facebook during the inquiry and chair Damian Collins had strong words for the firm and its leader, Mr Zuckerberg.

"We believe that in its evidence to the committee, Facebook has often deliberately sought to frustrate our work, by giving incomplete, disingenuous and at time misleading answers to our questions," he said.

"These are issues that the major tech companies are well aware of, yet continually fail to address. The guiding principle of the 'move fast and break things' culture seems to be that it is better to apologise than ask permission."

Mark Zuckerberg addressed the US Congress but refused to travel to the UK to speak to MPs

MPs were particularly angry that Mr Zuckerberg did not come to the UK to answer questions in person.

"Even if Mark Zuckerberg doesn't believe he is accountable to the UK Parliament, he is to billions of Facebook users across the world," said Mr Collins.

"Evidence uncovered by my committee shows he still has questions to answer yet he's continued to duck them, refusing to respond to our invitations directly or sending representatives who don't have the right information."

He also accused Facebook of "bullying" smaller tech firms and developers who rely on their platform to reach users.

The committee did not list specific examples of fake news. But it pointed to the government response to its interim report, which found at least 38 false narratives online after the nerve agent attack in Salisbury in March 2018.

The report also noted that disinformation was not just spread on Facebook but also on platforms such as Twitter.

And it found that, in the month following the publication of its interim report, 63% of the views to the online government response were from foreign internet protocol (IP) addresses, more than half of which were from Russia, highly unusual for a UK-based political inquiry.

MPs said current electoral regulations were "hopelessly out of date for the internet age" and needed urgent reform, so that the same principles of transparency of political communications that operate in the real world were applied online too.
The wide-ranging inquiry did not just look at fake news. It also examined how tech firms use data and data-targeting especially in political contexts, the use of political campaigning online and relationship between a complex network of firms including Canadian AIQ, Cambridge Analytica parent firm SCL and IT firm Six-Four-Three.

The committee called on the government to reveal how many investigations were currently being carried out into Russian interference in UK politics, particularly the EU referendum in 2016. They asked the government to launch an independent investigation into that.

In order to better regulate social media firms, the MPs suggested creating a new category of tech firm - one that was neither a platform nor a publisher but something in-between, which would tighten the legal liability for content identified as harmful.

Pressure is mounting on the tech giants to get to grips with the issue of fake news, and will add to calls from other ministers for regulation on the issue of harmful content, following the death of teenager Molly Russell.

Her father accused Facebook-owned Instagram of facilitating her death, by failing to remove images of self-harm.

And the Cairncross Review into the future of UK news recently recommended a regulator should oversee Google and Facebook to ensure their news content is trustworthy.

In her report, Dame Frances Cairncross said such sites should help users identify fake news and "nudge people towards news of high quality".

Facebook has repeatedly said it is committed to fighting fake news and works with more than 30 fact-checking organisation around the world.

Two of those agencies - Associated Press and Snopes - recently quit working with the social network.

The ease with which fake news can be created was illustrated recently by a team of researchers at OpenAi which showed a machine learning system produce coherent, but untrue articles, just by trawling through news site Reddit.

ruby Posted on February 18, 2019 15:53

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Saudi Arabia signs $20bn in deals with Pakistan


Saudi Arabia 'is Pakistan's friend in need'

Saudi Arabia has pledged investment deals worth $20bn (£15.5bn) with Pakistan which is seeking to bolster its fragile economy.

The deals include funding for an $8bn oil refinery in the city of Gwadar.

It comes as part of a high-profile Asian tour by the kingdom's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.

Pakistan is suffering a financial crisis. It has only $8bn left in foreign reserves and is looking to international backers for support.

Prime Minister Imran Khan has been seeking help from friendly countries in order to cut the size of the bailout package his country is likely to need from the International Monetary Fund, under very strict conditions.

The country is seeking its 13th bailout since the late 1980s and Saudi Arabia has already provided a $6bn loan.

Pakistan also said it would confer its highest civilian honour on the Saudi crown prince, the Order of Pakistan, a day after the investment deals were finalised.

The move is at odds with other countries who have condemned the Kingdom over its role in the murder of dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi last year.

Saudi Arabia and Pakistan signed provisional agreements and memorandums of understanding in the energy, petrochemicals and mining sectors, according to reports.

Of the latest deals, Prince bin Salman said: "It's big for phase one, and definitely [our commercial relationship] will grow every month and every year, and it will be beneficial to both countries."

Pakistan is the first stop on an Asian tour by the crown prince, known as MBS. He is scheduled to be in India by Tuesday and will visit China on Thursday and Friday.

The prince is seeking to recast his international image in the wake of the Jamal Khashoggi affair. The journalist was murdered at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul in October.

Against this backdrop, the current tour can be seen as a charm offensive by MBS, who is seeking to bolster relationships with dependable allies as he doles out cash, says the BBC's Abid Hussain.

While Pakistan stands to benefit from Saudi Arabia's largesse, the south Asian country is also important to the kingdom.

The two countries have a long-standing military relationship and the MBS visit comes at a time when geopolitics in the region are shifting - including concerns over the influence of Iran.

ruby Posted on February 18, 2019 15:49

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Jailed for stealing grapes: The motives of Japan's elderly inmates

Last month the BBC reported on the increase in the numbers of elderly Japanese being imprisoned. The biggest spike is among elderly women. One 68-year-old serving her fifth jail term - this time for stealing fruit - tells 100 Women why she did it.

I was jailed for the first time when I was 53 years old. I think I stole a bag. My prison term this time is two years. It's not that I'm shoplifting all the time - I steal when I feel cornered. The first time I did it because there were tensions at home. One of my children wasn't going to school and I was feeling annoyed.

Another time I was blackmailed by another prisoner who said she would tell everyone I had a criminal record unless I shoplifted again. I think she saw my address when I received letters. I didn't want her to tell everyone so I did it.

This time I shoplifted fruit because I have diabetes and I love sweet things, and I couldn't stop myself. The type of fruit I took [grapes] was something I couldn't afford to buy.

But I was also stressed because my son is living at home with us with his child after his marriage broke down, and hasn't got a job. I shoplifted after we argued. It's hard. He gets bored quickly and left his job. I told him we didn't need a lazy person in the house.


A cell at Tochigi Prison

My husband has visited me but my daughter gets angry and refuses to come.

There are many people here who committed crimes because they didn't get along with their children. They feel lonely. The children have their own life, and they have no time to care for their parents.

I don't want to shoplift again. I want to be strong, not to respond if threatened, and I will be patient about sweet things. I definitely don't want to come back here. I'm old, and it's hard to live here. I can't keep up with everything.

My husband says what's done is done. He says he's sorry that he didn't understand me. He was injured while I was in here so I want to take care of him when I return home. Young people are having a hard time in Japan but I hope they take care of their parents. Otherwise it will create loneliness.


I became a prison warden about 20 years ago. [After a career break] I came back here about five years ago, and my first impression was the increase of elderly prisoners. There were even several inmates I could recognise, and I thought: 'This person has become an old lady.'

For many inmates who have shoplifted, it was not that they didn't have any food to eat, but they wanted to save their money because the food was just there to take. I see the prisoners' profiles when they first join the prison workplace, and often they have stolen just one rice ball, or a few items of food which cost about 1,000 yen (£7).

Of course some inmates have had difficulty in making a living, but I got the impression from the profiles of others that they had the money to buy the thing but they thought it would be free if they stole it.

I talk to them and they know it was wrong but they say: 'I'm old and I don't have much money and worry about my life in old age.'

I'm in charge of a workplace that looks after repeat offenders, and they have been abandoned by their family. They are lonely and isolated. In prison they have food, clothing and shelter, and they might have an acquaintance or friend here. They feel more secure inside prison than outside in society.

In order to be sent to jail the easiest crime they can commit is stealing and shoplifting, and that is why we see an increase in those crimes.


Prison life: Slippers and bars to air bedding on

I used to be in charge of a workplace for first offenders. Some of the women I first met in that workplace are now in the repeat offenders section. I asked them why they came back so soon and they said: 'I was so lonely.'

When they got out of jail they said they would never want to come back but once they were out, because they had a criminal record and were older than 60, they didn't have many relatives to depend on, no friends, and wondered how they could live their lives. So they shoplifted again. I'm concerned that people like that will increase.

Once the prisoners have finished their term, they work with a welfare section at their local city hall and a welfare institution. We want to change their minds that going back to prison is the only way to survive.



ruby Posted on February 18, 2019 15:44

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Emiliano Sala: Cardiff footballer's funeral takes place

Mourners have been paying their final respects to Cardiff City striker Emiliano Sala in his native Argentina.

The 28-year-old died when the plane he was in with pilot David Ibbotson crashed in the English Channel en route from Nantes to Cardiff on 21 January.

A wake was held at the club Sala played for as a youth in his hometown of Progreso before the funeral started later on Saturday.

Among those who attended was Cardiff City manager Neil Warnock.

"I would like to find a responsible person...someone who says to me: 'this happened'; but, well, it seems this was just an accident," said Sala's aunt Mirta Taffarel.

Cardiff City manager Neil Warnock: "Sala was my player"

Sala was killed when a single-engine light aircraft, flown by pilot Mr Ibbotson, crashed near Alderney just two days after he became Cardiff City's record transfer.

His body, which was recovered from the wreckage following a privately-funded search last week, was repatriated to Argentina on Friday.

It was then driven from Buenos Aires to the Sante Fe province, where Sala grew up.

Mourners applauded in tribute as the footballer's coffin was carried in his hometown of Progreso

Outside the wake, fans draped a banner reading 'Emi, nunca caminaras solo' or 'Emi, You'll Never Walk Alone'.

"It's as if he was a member of my family," said a sobbing Lucia Torres, who lives nearby.

"It's something I can't understand nor accept because it hurts so much. The town has been in darkness since 21 January."

Emiliano Sala is known affectionately as Emi in his hometown

Sala's aunt Mirta Taffarel as she left the wake on Saturday morning

"He represented a lot for us," said Daniel Ribero, president of Sala's boyhood club San Martin de Progreso.

"We're a small village and Emi was a celebrity, the only player to turn professional."

Ahead of the service, the club posted a message on social media saying: "We are waiting for you ... like the first day you left but this time to stay with us forever. Eternally in our hearts."

Daniel Ribero, president of Sala's boyhood club San Martin de Progreso, said the footballer was a "celebrity" in the town

The wake got under way at the sports hall in San Martin de Progreso at 07:00 local time (10:00 GMT), and the funeral started at 14:00 (17:00 GMT).

As well as Cardiff's delegation of Warnock and chief executive Ken Choo, Sala's former club FC Nantes has been represented by defender Nicolas Pallois and its general secretary.

Warnock said: "He's my player. He signed for me I think he was going to be very instrumental in what we were looking to do and I feel it's the only good thing you can do.

"Family puts it in perspective. Family is so important, everything here today has shown how important it seems like the whole village has got together."

Mr Choo added: "We feel very sad and the whole club feels very sad."

"Today I think it's good for the family to have some closure."

Sala's mother Mercedes and sister Romina, who travelled to Europe after his disappearance, have returned to Progreso.

Cardiff City manager Neil Warnock travelled to Argentina for the funeral

Cardiff City manager Neil Warnock is due to attend the funeral on Saturday

His father Horacio also attended the funeral.

Meanwhile, a campaign to raise funds to find the body of Mr Ibbotson has reached £240,000.

The family of the 59-year-old, who is feared dead, are hoping to raise £300,000.

ruby Posted on February 18, 2019 12:25

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Venezuela crisis: Guaidó sets up possible confrontation over US aid

Venezuela's self-declared interim leader has set up a confrontation over US aid by calling for Venezuelans to cross borders and bring it into the country next week.

Juan Guaidó wants a "humanitarian avalanche" and "caravans" to go to the borders to get the aid next Saturday.

President Nicolás Maduro says the aid is part of a US plot to disguise an invasion into Venezuela.

The US says Mr Guaidó requested aid because the country was in crisis.

USAID administrator Mark Green said children were going hungry, that nearly every hospital in Venezuela was experiencing medicine shortages and that three million people had left the country.

It remains unclear if the aid will be allowed to enter Venezuela.

US military planes have already delivered aid to the Colombian border town of Cucuta. Mr Guaidó said more aid distribution centres would be opened in the Brazilian border town of Roraima and in the Caribbean.

What is Guaidó planning?

Outlining his plans for 23 February, Mr Guaidó, who is leader of the opposition-controlled National Assembly, urged Venezuelans to mobilise en masse in all of the country's states.

He said aid would enter Venezuela by land and sea and also urged Venezuelans living abroad to demonstrate and for those in Colombia and Brazil to accompany the aid into Venezuela.

Venezuela's President Maduro to BBC: US aid trucks are a charade

In an earlier tweet he said 600,000 people had signed up as volunteers to help bring in the aid and appealed to the military - which has so far remained loyal to Mr Maduro - to "put itself on the side of the people" and let the aid in.

  • Mr Guaidó has also said that more aid will be flown to the Dutch territory of Curaçao early next week. The opposition says that if it gets in Venezuela it will be first distributed to infants and pregnant mothers living in extreme poverty.

What does Maduro say?

He has denied there is any crisis in Venezuela and has called the operation a US-orchestrated show.

On Friday he ordered the military to remain on high alert against what he described as US "war plans".

His Vice-President Delcy Rodriguez meanwhile alleged that the US aid was contaminated with carcinogens "to poison our population" and described it as a "biological weapon", Spanish newspaper El Mundo reported.

One road bridge between Venezuela and Colombia remains blocked on the Venezuelan side by shipping containers.

Why Venezuela matters to the US... and vice versa

What has led to this?

Mr Maduro, who has been in power since 2013, was re-elected to a second term last year. But the elections were controversial, with many opposition candidates barred from running or jailed. There were also allegations of vote-rigging.

The head of the opposition-controlled National Assembly, Mr Guaidó declared himself president on 23 January. He said the constitution allowed him to assume power temporarily when the president was deemed illegitimate.

The US, some Latin American countries and some European countries, including the UK, support his claim. Russia, China, Mexico, Turkey and others say Mr Maduro is the legitimate president.


ruby Posted on February 18, 2019 12:19

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In pictures: Haiti anti-government protests

Protesters are angry at soaring inflation and demand an independent investigation over claims that officials and former ministers misappropriated development funds from an oil deal signed between Caribbean countries and Venezuela, the PetroCaribe.

The alleged theft amounts to $2bn (£1.55bn), according to a court report.

The demonstrators have demanded the resignation of President Jovenel Moise, in power since 2017, who has also been accused of involvement in irregularities. But last week he rejected calls for his resignation, saying he would not leave the country in the "hands of armed gangs and drug traffickers".

Haiti is the poorest country in the Americas and 60% of the population live on less than $2 (£1.56) a day, according to the World Bank.

The Caribbean nation was devastated by a powerful earthquake in 2010 that killed more than 200,000 people. Then in 2016, Hurricane Michael hit, killing some 3,000 people and badly damaging the country's infrastructure. Thousands of residents were displaced.

In an address on Saturday, Prime Minister Jean-Henry Céant announced measures including a 30% reduction in government's expenses and the removal of privileges - such as allowances for petrol, and telephones and trips abroad - for government officials.

He also vowed to continue with the investigation into the alleged irregularities involving PetroCaribe funds.

Thousands have joined the demonstrations that have plunged Haiti into political crisis and paralysed everyday life in the largest towns. New protests were expected this week and Mr Céant warned of the risk of a humanitarian crisis.

"The population suffers a lot, because blocked roads can't deliver water to drink, food, gasoline. It's almost impossible to have electricity."

Since the protests broke out on 7 February, several foreign governments, including the US and Canada, have urged citizens to avoid travel to Haiti and ordered the departure of non-emergency personnel.

ruby Posted on February 18, 2019 12:16

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